Issue 4

American Offensive Funny Riddles: A Critical Metaphor Analysis

Ahmed Sahib Jabir Mubarak

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 107-121

The paradox in the offensive humor lies in the assumption that what evokes laughter can be harmful for someone. Linguistically, the offense can be expressed directly and indirectly, additionally, humor, including riddles is one of the most effective ways to show offense or aggression toward someone. Humor, on the other hand, is mostly expressed indirectly. Metaphoric forms are said to be one of the most appealing strategies of humor language. The present study aims at applying a critical metaphor analysis of some randomly selected American offensive humorous riddles related to various aspects of offense like race and nation. In this approach to critical discourse analysis, the cognitive aspect is added for the sake of analyzing figurative forms like metaphor which is considered as an important part of ideology. Thus, critical metaphor analysis covers both social and cognitive aspects. It is concluded that offensive jokes (namely funny riddles) can be used as a tool to measure the aggressiveness towards certain social aspects like race; on the other hand, metaphors afford indications of facets of power, inequality and people ideologies in American society.

Minor Characters in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and A Midsummer Night's Dream

Zahraa Adnan Baqer

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 131-152

This paper aims at discussing the role of the minor characters in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and A Midsummer Night's Dream. The study assumes that without the first group of minor characters, associated with Olivia, the play Twelfth Night would lose much of its humor, and without the second group, associated with Sebastian, the play would fall apart. On the other hand, in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream minor characters play important roles, without them, the action dose not ran smoothly, or does not ran at all.
The paper falls into three sections. Section one deals with the role of each minor character in Twelfth Night.
Section two focuses on the minor characters in A Midsummer Night's Dream.
Section three is a conclusion which sums up the findings of the study.

The Use of Verbal Affixes by Iraqi EFL University Learners : Errors Analysis

Sabeeha Hamza Dehham; Amjad Jabbar Majeed

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 131-152

Affixation is the formation of a new word from an existing word ,root ,or stem ,by the addition of a prefix or suffix or by other means (Jackson,1985:34).The present study is an attempt to identify the errors made by Iraqi EFL learners in the Department of English / College of Basic Education, University of Babylon in using verbal affixes. This study aims at :(1)Presenting a brief and relevant background of verbal affixes, (2) Identifying and classifying the errors made by the fourth year students in the English Department, College of Basic Education/ University of Babylon during the academic year (2016-2017), and (3) Locating the areas of difficulty that Iraqi EFL learners encountered in learning verbal affixes.

Controlling the Balance of Exploration and Exploitation in ACO Algorithm

Ayad Mohammed Jabbar

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 10-17

Ant colony optimization is a meta-heuristic algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of real ant colony. The algorithm is a population-based solution employed in different optimization problems such as classification, image processing, clustering, and so on. This paper sheds the light on the side of improving the results of traveling salesman problem produced by the algorithm. The key success that produces the valuable results is due to the two important components of exploration and exploitation. Balancing both components is the foundation of controlling search within the ACO. This paper proposes to modify the main probabilistic method to overcome the drawbacks of the exploration problem and produces global optimal results in high dimensional space. Experiments on six variant of ant colony optimization indicate that the proposed work produces high-quality results in terms of shortest route.

Arabic (Indian) Handwritten Digits Recognition Using Multi feature and KNN Classifier

Alia Karim Abdul Hassan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 10-17

This paper presents an Arabic (Indian) handwritten digit recognition system based on combining multi feature extraction methods, such a upper_lower profile, Vertical _ Horizontal projection and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) with Standard Deviation σi called (DCT_SD) methods. These features are extracted from the image after dividing it by several blocks. KNN classifier used for classification purpose. This work is tested with the ADBase standard database (Arabic numerals), which consist of 70,000 digits were 700 different writers write it. In proposing system used 60000 digits, images for training phase and 10000 digits, images in testing phase. This work achieved 97.32% recognition Accuracy.

Development a Teaching Methods using a Cloud Computing Technology in Iraqi Schools

Thair A. Kadhim

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 18-26

The current state of education is mostly electronic. Factors such as servers, storage space, and software are more prominent than ever before. Cloud Computing is defined as an Internet-based computing space that allows its users to share resources, software and information. In the context of Iraq, increased educational spending has not translated into improved learning environments. This work intends to increase the efficiency of education in Iraq through reviewing the characteristics associated with cloud computing providers, such as Microsoft, Google and Amazon, in the context of enhancing the advantages to students, teachers, and other stakeholders. The work will also try to determine approaches that offered rich and affordable services and tools through posing a suitable Cloud Computing Model for Iraqi Schools (CCIS). This particular model is made up of three major parts; preparation, implementation and monitoring, and evaluating and reviewing. The CCIS model combines public and private clouds in the provision of multiple services to the students and enables the formation of links outside of schools. Problems associated with security and data privacy are quite low and under control in this model, as they are defended beyond firewalls alongside remote services, scalability, low costs, efficiency, and functional plug and play options. This study will also decrease the challenges faced by the model internally and externally via constant appraisals and review.

On p-duo Semimodules

Asaad M. A. Alhossaini; Zainab A. H. Aljebory

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 36-44

The concept of p-duo semimodule is introduced as a generalization of duo semimodule, where a semimodule M is said to be a p-duo if every pure subsemimodule of M is fully invariant. Many results about this concept are given.

On generalized Szasz-Bernstein –Type Operators

Amal K.Hassan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 0-0

Resently Dr.R.P. Pathak and Shiv Kumar Sahoo in 2012 intrudes a new modified Szasz-Bernstein –type operators, in the present paper, we introduce generalize Szasz- Bernstein- type operators , we proved that the operators are converge to the function being approximation. In addition, we establish a Voronovaskaja- type asymptotic formula for this operators .

A Study Regarding the Generalization Capacity of Image Classification by Using Neuroal Networks In Matlab

Al Rubaie Evan Madhi Hamzh

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 45-56

The paper performs an algorithmic and experimental study regarding the generalization capacity of the scheme based on neuronal networks for the recognition of new images of the face. This enables both a rendering of graphic representations and the classification of image classes in Matlab. The purpose is to describe the recognition algorithm, to project and implement an application which proposes both the graphic representation of the images used by the neuronal training algorithm but also the implementation of the perceptron neuronal algorithm and the determination of the generalization capacity of the separating hyper plane of the considered image classes.

Generalization of Tichonov and Hausdorff Separation Axiomes in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Special Topological Spaces

Fatimah M. Mohammed; Younis J. Yaseen

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 57-62

Our goal in this paper is to give definitions of generalized of Tichonov and Hausdorff separation axioms in intuitionistic fuzzy special topological spaces, and study relationships between these spaces with the intuitionistic special topological spaces (X, τ0,1) and (X, τ 0,2) on one hand and intuitionistic fuzzy special topological spaces (X, τ1) and (X, τ2) on the other hand.