Print ISSN: 1992-0652

Online ISSN: 2312-8135

Issue 3,

Issue 3


Code Switching and Code Mixing: A Sociolinguistic Study of Senegalese International Students in Iraqi Colleges

Hasan Hadi Mahdi; Majid Mohammed Saadoon; Qasim Obayes Al-Azzawi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 112-122
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The term 'code-switching' refers to the juxtaposition of elements from two (or more) languages or dialects. There is, however, little agreement among scholars on either the semantic scope of the term as they use it, or the nature of distinctions to be drawn between it and other, related terms such as code mixing. The term 'code-mixing' is a fluid one that overlaps with 'code-switching'. Switching and mixing may happen to a certain extent in speech of all two languages in a way that results in real confusion in relation to the two sociolinguistic terms. Thus, this work attempts to produce a rather comprehensive socio-linguistic approach to investigate these two distinct but interrelated sociolinguistic phenomena. This includes investigating the most observable operational definitions, distinguishing linguistic features and most influencing sociolinguistic factors on the use of the two terms. In light these aims the study hypothesizes that code- switching and code- mixing can be inspected from various viewpoints. Moreover, the processes of the code- switching and code- mixing and their linguistic aspects and performances are connected. To achieve the aims of this work and test its hypotheses, the most relevant definitions, distinctions and sociolinguistic issues are considered. Based on the findings of the analysis, the study concludes that: Both code switching and code mixing are used by Senegalese students who are studying Arabic in Iraq – Najaf due to the fact of multilingual students were exposed to four languages at a very early age in Senegal, particularly in school interactional settings. Employing certain language(s) in communicating with each other reflects several important vital factors that control their choice of language at any given situation. Switching to Wolof is always the case if one is talking to a fellow citizen. It is easier, clearer and reflects more seriousness too. Moreover, Wolof is used by them in order to show solidarity and intimacy as well as their group identity. In scientifically oriented discussions and exchanges French takes precedence. It’s the language at school, so it is the language of all scientific idioms and expressions.

A Distributed Approach for Disk Defragmentation

Mahdi Abed Salman; Hasanain Ali Al Essa; Khaldoon alhussayni

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 1-5
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Fragmentation is a computing problem that occurs when files of a computer system are replaced frequently. In this paper, the fragments of each file are collected and grouped, thanks to ant-colony optimization ACO, in one place as a mission for a group of ants. The study shows the ability of ants to work in a distributed environment such as cloud computing systems to solve such problem. The model is simulated using NetLogo.

Comparison of Performance Between Back Propagation and K-means on Medical Datasets

Asraa Abaullah Hussen

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 6-9
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In recent decades, and to this day computer technology has been used in applications and various fields including the medical field, which prompted many researchers to employ this technique in the design of decision support systems using many of the algorithms and methods for this purpose. In this paper, k-means and back propagation are proposed to classify medical datasets and then compare the performance of these methods, practical experiments show back propagation has best results than k-means.

Estimate The Time of Achievement of Activities of The Project Depending on the Properties of Prime Numbers.

Barraq Subhi Kaml

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 10-21
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The most important features of our time is to compete and development in all fields of life, among the most important these fields is building and construction, although the important role that represents construction projects in real life, but it is exposed to a number of problems and most of these problems are the delay in the completion of the non-receipt of the project on schedule,The reasons for this delay were not to using the scientific planning and review the projects like the method of networking analysis. By this paper, we tried to show new technique to estimate the time of achievement of activities of the project depending on the properties of prime numbers for fuzzy network.

Design and Implementation of Convolutional Encoder and Viterbi Decoder Using FPGA.

Riham Ali Zbaid; Kasim K. Abdalla

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 22-29
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Keeping the fineness of data is the most significant thing in communication.There are many factors that affect the accuracy of the data when it is transmitted over the communication channel such as noise etc. to overcome these effects are encoding channels encryption.In this paper is used for one type of channel coding is convolutional codes. Convolution encoding is a Forward Error Correction (FEC) method used in incessant one-way and real time communication links .It can offer a great development in the error bit rates so that small, low energy, and devices cheap transmission when used in applications such as satellites. In this paper highlight the design, simulation and implementation of convolution encoder and Viterbi decoder by using MATLAB- program (2011). SIMULINK HDL coder is used to convert MATLAB-SIMULINK models to VHDL using plates Altera Cyclone II code DE2-70. Simulation and evaluation of the implementation of the results coincided with the results of the design show the coinciding with the designed results.

On (T,L)- Identification Function

Aqeel Ketab Al-Khafaji

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 30-34
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In this paper, we study and introduce the notion of -identification function which is a function from a topological space to another topological space and be two operators associative with respectively, then is called -identification function if and only if is onto and is -open set in if and only if is -open set in .

On Types of - Functions

Hashmiya Ibrahim Nasser

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 47-51
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In this paper we introduce and study another types of functions in a topological spaces namely , -compact and -coercive by using the concept of -open sets . Also we investigate some properties of these concepts and the relation between them.

Properties Chaotic of Rabinovich-Fabrvikant Equations

Wafaa H. Al-Hilli

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 52-60
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We give a new map named (Rabinovich-Fabrvikant equations) and find five fixed points we study only one fixed point x0(0,0,0), and all general properties of them We prove that the contracting and expanding area of this point , thought the study of the chaotic of the point by use the Wiggins defined and we proof that the lyapunov exponent of the point (0,0,0) is positive .We use matlab program to show sensitive dependence on the initial conditions and transitivity of (R-F).

On vague Order and Decomposition Mapping by -Open Sets Using Nano

Saied A. Jhonny; Sanaa N. Mohammed

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 69-77
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In this paper the concept of nano topology is studied in a different way . The notation of nano -open is established. Also the concept -covering dimension is defined. The aim of this paper is to introduce and define a new type of covering dimension by using nano -open sets namely, a nano -covering dimension in a nano topological space and find some relations to other concepts. Some properties and characterization of this covering dimension are obtained.

Mutation of BRAF V600E in Iraqi Female Patients Diagnosed With Breast Cancer

Mohammed Abdulwahab Ati Al-Askeri; Arafat A. Mutter

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 78-83
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This study aimed to investigate the possible presence of BRAF V600E mutation in the Iraqi female patients who diagnosed with breast cancer in different ages, in which Blood and tissue samples were collected from 46 female patients with age (46.73±3.54);Those were divided into two groups; who took chemotherapy (31 persons) as treated group and without chemotherapy as an untreated group (15 persons) and from (23) healthy person with age(47.93±3.05). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were done with newly designed primers. The results revealed no correlation between breast cancer occurrence and BRAF V600E mutation in the Iraqi patients enrolled in the current study

Assessment of Antihyperglycaemic Activity of Calotropis Procera Leaves Lxtract on Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Male Rats

Shaymaa Abd Al-Jasim Alshukri; Ali Hmood Al-Saadi Haider Kamil Zaidan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 84-92
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The present study aims studying the influences of treatment with methanol watery leaf extracts of Calotropis procera on Fasting blood glucose and Insulin level in alloxan induced diabetic male rats. phytochemical analysis of leaves extract reveals presence of Glycosides, Tannines, phenols compound, Flavonoids, Coumarins, Resins and terpenes. Also methanol watery leaf extracts of Calotropis procera dose 250 and 500mg/kg body weight showed significant lowering in the blood glucose from 348.16 ± 36.67 to 169.33 ±21.80 after 45 day of treatment. While showed non-significant enhancement in fasting serum Insulin level.

Study Effect of Infection With Treponema Palladum at the Level of Antibodies and Some Blood Parameters and its Relationship With Blood Factions

Maysoon k. A. Al-Hadraawy; Kais K. A . AL. Hadraawy; Kareem A. Humadi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 93-98
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The study was conducted on 30 patients and 20 healthy people to determine the influences of infected with Treponema pallidum on levels of IgM , IgA, IgG ,Complement4 ,complement 3 and some Blood parameters in infected with T. Pallidum also relation disease with blood factions in compared with healthy group who have visited Al-Sadder Medical City and Al-Hakeem Hospital in Al- Najaf governorate during the period from August 2014 till February 2015 in Al-Sadder Medical City Laboratories .The results showed significant increase (P<0.001) in IgM , IgG ,Complement4 in T. pallidum infected patients in compared to control group. Furthermore the results showed C3 was significant decreased (P< 0.05) in Treponema Pallidum infected patients in compared to control group also the results showed significant increase in WBCs, RBCs ,MPV and HCT level and significant decrease in MCV in patients compared with control group . The study also showed that the people of blood type A are more prone to infection, followed by blood type B and O, while there are no injuries to the blood type AB.

Synthesis And Characterization Of (P-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Urea Formaldehyde) Copolymer Chelates With Pb(II),Zn(II) And Cd(II) Ions

Basima Abdulhusin Zaidan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 99-107
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Copolymer { p-hydroxybenzoic acid urea formaldehyde}(PUF) was prepared from the reaction of {p- hydroxybenzoic acid}(P) + {urea}(U) + {formaldehyde}(F) using HCl as a catalyst.
Formation of Pb(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II) polymers were obtained from the reaction of the copolymer (PUF) with some ions. The polymeric structures were elucidated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Atomic Absorption spectroscopy (AA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and derivative of the thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) has been carried out to ascertain relative thermal stability of copolymer and its polymeric complexes and the pat of H2O in the structure. Form the obtained data an octahedral geometry around Pb(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II) )ions have been suggested

Some of Physical Properties of Nanostructured (Mg1-xCoxFe2O4) Ferrites Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

Muhammad Abdul Ammer Alsherefi; Muhammad Hamza Almaamori; Mushtaq Ali Hussein Alshimmary

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 118-124
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Sol-gel auto combustion technique was used to prepare nanoparticles of magnesium-cobalt ferrites with the chemical formula Mg1-xCoxFe2O4 for (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1), where x added as weight percentages, and sintering at temperature (1100 oC). The X-ray patterns of prepared powder has confirmed the structure of cubic spinel structure (fcc). The prepared samples were composed of nearly spherical nano particles .An average particle size of magnesium-cobalt ferrite were calculated using Debye Scherer’s relation is equal 53.12 nm. The surface structure of the samples was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM). The electromagnetic properties for prepared samples were investigated using Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) in X-band microwave region.

Sleep Quality and Academic Performance Among Medical College Students

Ameer Kadhim Al-Humairi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 142-152
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Background:Sleep plays a very important role in a human health. Poor sleep quality remains as a frequent feature of student life. Quantity and quality of sleep in addition to average sleep time are strongly linked with students’ learning abilities and academic performance.
Subjects and method:The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted to assess sleep quality among medical college students – University of Babylon using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). This study was done during April 2016.
Results:Mean age of students was (20.63 ± 0.65). Majority was female. According to PSQI(60.4%) of students were poor sleeper. Significant association between quality of sleep and academic performance was found in our study, (72.9%) of those fail in one or more subjects have poor sleep quality.
Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was regarded as an important problem among medical college students. Majority of students (60.4%) was poor sleepers. Our study shows significant relation between sleep quality and academic performance among students of Babylon University –College of Medicine.

Value of Platelet Indices in Diagnosing Etiology of Thrombocytopenia

Liqaa M. Majeed Al-Sharifi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 153-162
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Background:Platelet parameters are significant, especially in diagnosis of causes of thrombocytopenia. The platelet parameters are widely available as part of full blood count with no extra cost. Thrombocytopenia is of varying etiology, it is broadly divided into three major categories (1) as increased destruction (ITP), (2) decreased production and (3) splenic sequestration/abnormal pooling.
Aims of the study: To investigate the indices of the platelets which include
( MPV,PDW,PCT) and to signify its role in the diagnosing the etiology of thrombocytopenia,, if there is any correlation between platelet count and platelets indices and to determine cut off point of MPV for the diagnosis of ITP.
Materials and Methods: 104 cases of Thrombocytopenia (TCP) and 50
control cases having normal platelet count were selected. TCP was defined as platelet count <150 x 109/L. Analysis was done by Diagon cell counter and every case was reassessed by Peripheral Smear (P.S.) examination and if necessary also by manual method. Only those cases that had sufficient clinico-hematological work -up and the causes of low platelet count had been reliably established were included in the study.
Results: The study was conducted on 104cases they were broadly categorized into three groups Group A with reduced production, Group B with increased destruction and Group C with abnormal pooling(splenomegaly). In group A, mean platelets count 64.98 x 109/l ± 36.5, mean MPV 9.3 Fl ± 1.1 , mean PDW 16.33 Fl±0.73, mean PCT 0.094% ± 0.157, M:F ratio1:1, there were a significant statistical difference in platelets count with control group (P value 0.000) and with group B (p value 0.0420), mean MPV shows significant difference with all control, B and C groups (P value 0.000, 0.000, 0.01 respectively), PDW also shows significant difference with control and C groups ( p value 0.000, 0.001 respectively), PCT shows significant statistical difference with control and B groups ( p value 0.000, 0.04) respectively.
There was a negative correlation platelets count and PDW.
In group B, mean platelets count 44.51 x 109/l ± 33.9, mean MPV 10.3 Fl ± 1.5, mean PDW 16.22 Fl ±0.86, mean PCT 0.049% ± 0.042, M:F ratio 1:4.5, there were a significant statistical difference in platelets count with control group (P value 0.000), with group A (p value 0.0420) and with group C (p value 0.006), MPV shows significant statistical difference with all groups (P value 0.000 for all), PDW shows significant difference with control and C groups (p value 0.000, 0.008 respectively) , PCT with control and group A (p value 0.000, 0.04) respectively. There was a negative correlation platelet count and MPV and PCT.
A cut off point for the diagnosis of ITP is 9.9 with 100% sensitivity and 100 % specificity.
Regarding group C, mean platelets count 80.0 x 109/l ± 27.1, mean MPV 8.5 Fl ± 0.84 , mean PDW 15.67 Fl ± 0.84, mean PCT 0.1007% ± 0.139, M:F ratio 1:1.1, there were a significant statistical difference in platelets count with control group (P value 0.000) and group B (p value 0.006), mean MPV shows significant difference with group A and B groups (P value 0.01, 0.000 respectively), PDW shows significant difference with group A and B groups (p value 0.001, 0.008 respectively), while PCT shows significant statistical difference with control and B groups only (p value 0.000,0.08) respectively. There was no correlation between platelet count and its parameters.
Conclusion: Platelet indices are useful method to distinguish immune thrombocytopenia from hypoproductive thrombocytopenia and can provide significant data about the underlying causes of thrombocytopenia. MPV can discriminate ITP from hypoproductive thrombocytopenia and cut off point is 9.9 FL and they may postpone ITP patients from doing bone marrow aspiration and to ovoid platelet transfusion, there is negative correlation between MPV and platelets count in ITP patients.

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Under Nutrition Among Under-Five Children in Babylon Province, Iraq,2016

Ismael Hasan Jawad; KahtanHadi AL- Jubori; Hasan Alwan Baiee

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 163-173
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Background:Malnutrition in children under five years of age is high priority public health problems especially in middle and low income countries including Iraq, it is +associated with high morbidity and mortality among infants and young children
Objectives:To identify the prevalence and the correlates of under nutrition (underweight, stunting and wasting) among children under 5 years of age living in Babylon province, Iraq.
Methodology:A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, to collect primary information from mothers of1000 children attending ten randomly selected primary health care centers (five rural and five urban centers) in Babylon province during the period from January through June 2016 ,a scientific questionnaire, anthropometric measurements (weight for age, length/height for age and weight for height), were used to assess the nutritional status of the child .
Results: The study revealed that the prevalence of underweight , stunting and wasting were 7.6%, , 20.6%, and 6.6% respectively . Significant statistical associations were found between all types of under nutrition and the following independent variables p<0.05 ; age,( gender , more common in boys ), low level of mother education , types of breast feeding and family income.
Conclusion:The study concluded that chronic malnutrition in the study area is still a concern that needs timely intervention by governmental and non-governmental organizations. We conclude that improvements in child feeding, and better maternal education are needed to maintain the children's nutritional status.

The Effect of Fluoridated and Non Fluoridated Mouth Washes on Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Arch Wires At Different Time Intervals (An in Vitro Study)

Lubna Maky Hussein; Nidhal H. Ghaib

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 174-183
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Background:The color stability of aesthetic arch wires is an important factor in the success of an aesthetic orthodontic treatment, but the color of these arch wires tends to change with time.This study was performed to assess the effect of two types of mouth washes on the color stability of different types of aesthetic arch wires at different time intervals.
Materials and methods:Four brands of nickel titanium coated aesthetic arch wires were used: epoxy coated (Orthotechnology and G&H) and Teflon coated (Dany and Hubit).Thirty six samples were prepared, each sample contains ten halves of the aesthetic arch wires. They were divided into three groups according to the immersion media (distilled water as a control media, Listerine with fluoride and Listerine without fluoride) and immersed for 30 seconds twice daily according to manufacturer's instructions to measure color change after 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks by using spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Compact according to Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L*a*b* color space system.
Results:It was found that there were highly significant differences in color change values of aesthetic arch wires among all immersion media at different time intervals and color change value increases as the time of immersion increases.Additionally, Listerine with fluoride mouth wash caused higher color change values of aesthetic arch wires than Listerine without fluoride and Hubit aesthetic arch wires were the least color stable while Orthotechnology aesthetic arch wires were the most color stable.
Conclusions: We can conclude that the daily use of Listerine mouth washes could affect on the color stability of aesthetic arch wires. Although all tested aesthetic arch wires revealed color changes at variable degrees but some of these changes were not visible and the others were clinically acceptable while the remaining were clinically unacceptable.

Investigation of Cytotoxic Effects of Dichanthium Annulatum F. And Paspalum Distichum L. On Cell Line SR. (Lymphoma) and L20B (Murine fibroblast)

Dhifaf Jabbar Shamran; Mohamd Radhwan Mahmmod; Mustafa Abd Manshood

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 184-190
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D. Annulatum F. and P. Distichum L., are grasses belongs to Poaceae family, they grow without any effort in the western plateau of Iraq in general and particulary in the southern part, located in the province of Muthanna. These grasses are commonly used as a forage for livestock. The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of D. Annulatum F. and P. Distichum L. methanolic extracts in vitro by using MTT assay (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) on two cell lines (SR and L20B) by using different concentrations (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml) for an incubation period of 24 hours. We found cytotoxic effect for methanolic extract of D. Annulatum F. against SR cell line in low concentrations (3.125, 6.25μg/ml) which was (55%, 46%), and against the L20B cell line was (60%, 59%) in the same concentrations. Regarding methanolic extract of P. Distichum L. the best effect was found with the lower concentrations which was (45%,44%) against SR and (49%,48%) against L20B. In conclusion, the two grasses have a good potential anticancer effects.

The Value of Holter Monitoring in the Assessment of Non-Specific Symptoms

Shokry Faaz Nassir

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 191-195
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Background: To assess the importance of Holter monitoring in evaluation of non-specific symptoms (like presyncope, dizziness, palpitations, syncope, etc.).
Patients and Methods: This is an observational , prospective descriptive study which was conducted at Shaheed Al-Mihrab cardiac centre at Babylon City - Iraq in which 100 patients referred from the consultation department for the assessment of non-specific compliants were included in this study . Holter monitoring was done for all patients after initial evaluation. Holter monitoring was accomplished using GE Holter system with two channels and five leads, attached to the anterior chest wall. The recorder was attached to a strap, which was attached to the patient shoulder. The recording was started in the morning at hospital working hours and the patient was allowed to go home and to resume his normal activities. He was advised to maintain his activity and asked to return back at the same time next day.
Results: 87% of patients have less than 10% premature ventricular ectopics as an isolated event while 90% of the patients have Supraventricular arrythmias less than 10% as isolated events. The mean minimum heart rate was 47 , mean maximum heart rate was 117 and mean average heart rate was 65 . 18 % of patients have ST segment Shift in which 4% were ST-segment elevation and 14% were ST segment depressions.
Conclusion: Holter monitoring was found to have no important role for the early diagnosis of arrhythmias or ischaemia as a cause of compliant in patients with non-specific symptoms

Comparative Study of Laparoscopic Appendectomies With Application of Different Techniques for Closure of the Appendicular Mesoappendix and Stump

Mohend A.N. Al-Shalah

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 196-206
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Background: Laparoscopic appendectomy(LA) has gained a wide safe acceptance and effective method for treatment of acute appendicitis and can be considered as a gold standard. The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of LA performed with the use of different techniques.
Method: Prospective randomized comparative study was carried out in a Babylon General Teaching Hospital. Patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis between December 2011 and December 2015 and agreed to do LA were included in this study. In Group A , the mesoappendix and the base of appendix is ligated using titanium clips while in group B ,the mesoappendix was cut with the application of monopolar diathermy very near to the appendix wall and the base of appendix is ligated using vicryle endoloop. In. Primary outcomes were assessed which include mortality ,intra and post-operative complication rate, reinterventions, and converted laparoscopic appendectomies to open .Secondary outcomes were time of hospitalization, duration of operation, wound infection and intra-abdominal abscesses formation rate, hospital charges.
Result: A total of 284patients underwent LA. 146 (51.4%) of them ,LA were done by clipping of mesoappendix and base of appendix by titanium clips, while the other 138 (48.6%) of patients LA were done by using monapolar diathermy to the mesoappendix and base of appendix secured by vicryle endoloop. The overall mean age of all patients with appendectomy was (26.42±11.05) years old and (38.7%) of patients were aged between 20-30 years. (52.5%) of patients were males. The overall mean weight, height and BMI for patients with appendectomy were (74.29±12.14) kg, (1.68±0.09) m and (26.68±8.84) kg/m2, respectively. (45.4%) of patients were overweight. The overall mean duration of operation was (31.01±12.48) min and (68.7%) of patients spent less than 30 min operative time, meanwhile, the mean of hospitalization after operation was (22.11± 17.96) hours and (71.8%) of patients stayed less than 20 hours in hospital. Only (8.5%) of patients had complicated appendicitis and complication post-operation, while, (4.9%) of patients had complicated appendectomy. (45.1%) of operations’ cost were 450 US $. There were significant associations between type of appendectomy with duration, complicated operation and price of operation.
Conclusion: Laparoscopic appendectomies can be considered a safe treatment of complicated and non complicated appendicitis. Application of monopolar diathermy very near to the wall of appendix to cauterize the small vessels of mesoappendix is useful and safe and considered costly effective and less complication rate than application of Titanium clips.

The Effect of Clearance on the Performance of Machine Husking Rubber Rolls for Two

Ali M. Kermani; Mohammed H Kianmeher; Akbar Arabhosseini; Salih K. Alwan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 207-214
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The effect of clearance between cylinders of machine husking rubber rolls (type Yanmar rubber roll – ST 50) on rice husk quality and breakage percentage was evaluated for two cultivars of rice. Tarm Hashemi (TH) and Daillman (DM) and clearance between cylinders of machine husking rubber at three different levels of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8mm.The experiment was done in factorial experiment under complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications the results indicate that the TH cultivar is significantly better than the D M in all studied traits. There was a negative relationship between increased clearance with head rice percentage and brown rice percentage in addition to the positive relationship between the increased percentage of cracked grain ,broken rice percentage and husking efficiency.

Modelling and Development of Linear and Nonlinear Intelligent Controllers for Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS)

Mohammad Najeh Nemah

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 1-12
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Antilock braking systems (ABS) are utilized as a part of advanced autos to keep the vehicle’s wheels from deadlocking when the brakes are connected. The control performance of ABS utilizing linear and nonlinear controls are cleared up in this research. In order to design the control system of ABS a nonlinear dynamic model of the antilock braking systems is derived relying upon its physical system. The dynamic model contains set of equations valid for simulation and control of the mechanical framework. Two different controllers technique is proposed to control the behaviors of ABS. The first one utilized the PID controller with linearized technique around specific point to control the nonlinear system, while the second one used the nonlinear discrete time controller to control the nonlinear mathematical model directly. This investigation contributes to more additional information for the simulation of the two controllers, and demonstrate a clear and reasonable advantage of the classical PID controller on the nonlinear discrete time controller in control the antilock braking system.

Estimation of Maximum Shear Capacity of RC Deep Beams Strengthened by NSM Steel Bars

Hayder Hussain Kammona; Abdullah Sikar Hassan Al-Issawi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 13-22
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This work aims to estimate the maximum shear capacity of deep beams RC members strengthened by Near-Surface Mounted (NSM) steel bars. This is done by using an assumed semi-empirical formula that depends on experimental tests. This formula will cover many principal parameters such as shear span to effective depth ratios (a/d), orientation angle of NSM steel bars, concrete compressive strength (f′c), bar’s diameter and their spacing. So, thirteen reinforced concrete deep beams with different (a/d) ratios equals (0.85, 1.136 and 1.42) were tested. These beams are categorized into three groups depending on (a/d) ratio, which contained one unstrengthen beam as a control specimen and others strengthened beams by different schemes of NSM steel bars.
A comparison between the calculated and experimental values shows good agreement with high coefficient of determination (R2=95.4%). The proposed formula is also used to estimate shear capacity of some specimens that found in some previous literatures to confirm the validity of the formula in estimating shear capacity of different cases. Good agreement with low (COV) of the predicted shear capacity with the experimental values that found in literatures was obtained.

Accuracy Assessment of Open Source Digital Elevation Models

Aqeel Abboud Abdul Hassan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 23-33
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Digital Elevation Model is a three-dimensional representation of the earth's surface, which is essential for Geoscience and hydrological implementations. DEM can be created utilizing Photogrammetry techniques, radar interferometry, laser scanning and land surveying. There are some world agencies provide open source digital elevation models which are freely available for all users, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s (JAXA) and others. ALOS, SRTM and ASTER are satellite based DEMs which are open source products. The technologies that are used for obtaining raw data and the methods used for its processing and on the other hand the characteristics of natural land and land cover type, these and other factors are the cause of implied errors produced in the digital elevation model which can't be avoided. In this paper, ground control points observed by the differential global positioning system DGPS were used to compare the validation and performance of different satellite based digital elevation models. For validation, standard statistical tests were applied such as Mean Error (ME) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) which showed ALOS DEM had ME and RMSE are -1.262m and 1.988m, while SRTM DEM had ME of -0.782m with RMSE of 2.276m and ASTER DEM had 4.437m and 6.241m, respectively. These outcomes can be very helpful for analysts utilizing such models in different areas of work.

Evaluation of the Loss from the Discharge by the Percolation Process along a Selected Section of Hilla River within Hashimiya Region

Arkan Radi Ali; Muhsen Khudhair Hasson

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 23-33
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The study area is located in the southern Babylon governorate - central Iraq within longitudinal (44◦36׳- 44◦47׳) east and latitudes (32◦18׳-32◦27׳) north, within the administrative border of Hashimiya district. The study area lies on Mesopotamian plain which is characterized as a flat surface. Flow pattern map is drown by using field measurements of water levels in scattered wells over entire the region and local streams. The interflow quantity is calculated by using Darcy law after dividing the region into 7 sectors. The sectors of 1 to 6 lay north Hilla River within the selected section and the 7 lies south it. Interflow quantity of north is (0.065) m3/sec and of south is (0.0372) m3/sec. The quantity of the losing by interflow from Hilla River Channel to both sides within Hashimiya Region (along 17270m) is approximately 0.1071m3/sec in average. The losing by evaporation is 0.086m3/sec along same distance. Total sum of both losing represents 2.4% of used surface water in the region which must be added into Hilla's share.

Centralized Database for Laboratory Test: A Case Study Of Oil Refinery

Nahla Fadel Alwan; Ammar Mohammed Ali; Jamal Hilal Assi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 43-57
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The data management can be considered as an important subject in information management. The correct and relevant data can be used as a source of valuable information in organization like factories and refineries, and by good management of this data the right decision can be take. The database system is considered as the best choice to manage data efficiently. In oil refinery the laboratories will support the operational processing and provide the employees with knowledge to control the operational condition of unit operation. These laboratories results can be considered as a resource of information in oil refinery and stored in centralized database of client-server system installed on intranet. Using intranet as a private network with central database in oil refinery will provide secure and speed sharing of information within oil refinery, improve employee's productivity, time management, reduce many of the administrative expenses, it can be designed according to the needs of refinery and is subject to internal policies, at last it is cheap to be implemented and run. The authorized employees can access central database and see these laboratories results by using their clients' computers; this will save time and give them the ability to take required right decision quickly in the operation unit and lead to improve quality control on the operational process in oil refinery.

Enhancing the compressive strength property of gypsum used in walls plastering by adding lime

Moslih Amer Salih; Abbas Ahmed Hussein

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 58-66
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This study aims to improve the compressive strength and the adhesive for the Iraqi gypsum by using the lime as a local material to improve the properties of the Iraqi gypsum in binding and plastering works. The lime was used to replace 10%, 20%, and 30% of the total gypsum quantity to study the development of the paste material and its effect on the compressive strength, its structure and the water quantity. The initial and final setting time was conducted with the compressive strength test. The results showed a full improvement in the compressive strength for the cubes at the age of 7 days comparing to the gypsum paste. There was a change in the setting time with the replacement of gypsum with lime in addition to the increase in the density of the final product. The results showed the possibility of developing the Iraqi product and the recommendation to use in a wide range in the finishing works which can be more economic in the work.

A Hybrid Verifiable and Delegated Cryptographic Model in Cloud Computing

Jaber Ibrahim Naser

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 67-74
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Access control is very important in cloud data sharing. Especially in the domains like healthcare, it is essential to have access control mechanisms in place for confidentiality and secure data access. Attribute based encryption has been around for many years to secure data and provide controlled access. In this paper, we proposed a framework that supports circuit and attributes based encryption mechanism that involves multiple parties. They are data owner, data user, cloud server and attribute authority. An important feature of the proposed system is the verifiable delegation of the decryption process to cloud server. Data owner encrypts data and delegates decryption process to cloud. Cloud server performs partial decryption and then the final decrypted data are shared for users as per the privileges. Data owner thus reduces computational complexity by delegating decryption process cloud server. We built a prototype application using the Microsoft.NET platform for proof of the concept. The empirical results revealed that there is controlled access with multiple user roles and access control rights for secure and confidential data access in cloud computing.

Nonlinear Finite Elements Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Columns Strengthened With Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)

Mazen Dewan Abdulla; Zahraa Abbas Khaduier

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 75-97
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This paper presents the results of a study to have better understanding of structural behavior of the reinforced concrete (RC) column wrapped by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets.
In this study, 3D F.E model has been presented using ANSYS computer program (Release 16.0) to analyze reinforced concrete columns strengthened with CFRP composites , to evaluate the gain in performance (strength and ductility) due to strengthening, and to study the effect of the most important parameters such as: compressive strength of concrete, modulus of elasticity of CFRP and corner radius of square columns.
Three dimensional eight-node brick element (SOLID65) was used to represent the concrete, three dimensional spar element (LINK180) represented the steel and using a three dimensional shell element (SHELL41) to represent the CFRP composites.
The present study has a comparison between the analytical results from the ANSYS finite element analysis with experimental data. The results of the study show that, external bonded CFRP sheets are very effective in enhancing the axial strength and ductility of the concrete columns. Inspection of the results shows that, there is good agreement between the ANSYS and the experimental test results.

Miscibility improvement of LDPE/PVA blends by using silane-coupling agent

Zuhair Jabbar Abdul Ameer; Nabeel Hasan Hameed

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 98-109
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Mixing two polymers usually results in an immiscible system, characterized by a coarse, easy to alter morphology, and poor adhesion between the phases. These blends have large size domains of dispersed phase and poor adhesion between them. Therefore, miscibility of polymer blend must be improved by using suitable additives such as compatibilizer. In this study 5% of silane 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate is used as compatibilizer to improve the miscibility and compatibility of LDPE/PVA blends. The samples were prepared by using a twin screw extruder. LDPE and PVA have been mixed with different weight proportion. Several tests were carried out to identify the compatibility and miscibility of the blends such as tensile properties, hardness, density, Fourier transforms infrared FTIR, digital microscope, scanning electron microscopy SEM and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Result show that tensile strength, young modulus, elongation at break, density and hardness is increased with silane addition to the blends. SEM and digital microscope shows an improvement in the miscibility due to the better interaction between the two polymers as silane is added.

Rutting Resistance of Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEMs) with Acrylic (AR) Polymer

Muna Al- Kafaji; Shakir Al-Busaltan; Hussein Ewadh

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 110-123
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Rutting is one a distress that commonly occurs in flexible pavement, mainly due to exceedingly heavy axle loads, high ambient temperature, and insufficient paving materials quality. Dealing with the last reason of rutting, the paper aims at investigating rutting resistance of Cold Bituminous Emulsified Mixture (CBEMs) with Acrylic (AR) polymer. CBEMs were prepared with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and conventional mineral filler (CMF) as a filler for its recognition benefit when introduce to CBEM. Acrylic (AR) polymer emulsified was added to a cationic medium setting emulsified bitumen, with various dosages ranged from 0% to 5% of residual bitumen, to obtain a modified asphalt emulsion that was mixed with a local aggregate in order to prepare CBEMs. Also, it is intended to make a comparison between CBEMs, for the same circumstances of local aggregates and different types of filler, with the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA).
Marshall test is conducted to investigate the stability and flow of different mixes in the scope of the research. Further, Wheel track device connected to a computer system is used to measure rutting depth that indicates the expected rutting resistance. The results demonstrated a significant effect for AR polymer adding, where the rutting resistance for CBEMs comprising OPC is improved for almost all dosages, but the 1.25% recorded as the best one. It is worth to mention that the new polymer modified CBEM offers rutting resistance better than that of HMA, which sustain the possibility of replacing the common environment harmful paving technology by sustaining one.

Numerical Analysis for un-baffled Mixing Tank Agitated by Two Types of Impellers

Ammar Ashour Akesh

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 124-137
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The effect of impeller flow type and rotation speed on the fluid in mixing tank design under standard configurations investigated to analyses the fluid velocity, turbulent intensity and path lines. In this theoretical study, the fluid motion inside the mixing tank was investigated by solving Navier-Stokes equation and standard k-ε turbulent model in 3-dimensions, for incompressible and turbulent flow. Two types of flow with three types of impellers were investigated, axial-flow with (Lightnin200 and generic impellers) and radial-flow with (Rushton turbine). All impellers evaluated under rotation velocity variation between 10 – 115 rpm. The results showed a direct proportional relationship between the impeller and turbine rotation speed with the fluid velocity in mixing vessel. Also, this case matches with the turbulent intensity and path lines.

Enhanced Electricity Generation by Using Cheese Whey Wastewater in A Single-chamber Membrane Less Microbial Fuel Cell

Hassan A.Z.Al-Fetlawi; Ali Muneer Hadi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 138-145
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Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are biochemical-catalyzed systems in which electricity is produced by oxidizing biodegradable organic matters in presence of bacteria. Many places suffer from lack of electricity infrastructure or even existence" ,"but in the same area there is wastewater that can be used to generate clean energy". "A batch system single chamber and membrane-less microbial fuel cell is designed with wastewater as inoculum and fuel in the same time(before adding cheese whey) at pH =7±0.4 and an operating temperature of 30 0C ". Wastewater samples are collected from the Al-Delmaj marsh site at an initial chemical oxygen demand concentration of 862 mg/l and pH of 7.8 (reduced to 7±0.4 in all experiments by adding HCL acid). Rectangular sheets of graphite and smooth surface carbon fiber of 42 cm2 surface area used for anode and cathode electrodes. The obtained results indicated that the cell performance for the cell using graphite for anode and cathode electrodes is better than that using the carbon fiber of smooth surface .the obtained open circuit voltage and power per unit surface area (for graphite) were" 190 mV and 5.95 mW/m2 respectively ."Cheese whey as substrate was used to enhance the performance of cell to 439 mV OCV and 121.9mW/m2 maximum power density" .

Performance analysis of a keyword search system

Mustafa Abdalrassual Jassim

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 146-152
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Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in a data set by keyword. Keyword search is the most effective way to discover information in documents. But somewhere, sometimes just searching for a keyword is not enough; with research restricting that keyword has become a necessity. Like in social media abuse of word is increasing. Many systems worked on only detecting an inappropriate word; not on restriction of that word. So here in this paper keyword search method is proposed for social media which not only finds the inappropriate words, but also restrict that word from publishing on the media.

Study of Morphometric Properties and Water Balance Using Thornthwaite Method in Khanaqin Basin, East of Iraq.

Hussein Ilaibi Zamil Al-Sudani

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 165-175
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Water balance techniques are a means of solution of important theoretical and practical hydrological problems, where morphometric analysis of a watershed provides a quantitative description of the drainage system, which is an important aspect of the characterization of watersheds. The evaluated quantities of drainage morphology in Khanaqin basin which located to the East of Iraq were Perimeters (P), length (L), width (W), circulatory ratio (Rc), elongation ratio (Re), form factor (Rf), compactness coefficient (Cc), stream order (Su), stream numbers (Nu) and lemniscate factor (K). The catchment's area was (1920) km2, characterized by is elongated low relief, gentle ground slopes and far from being circular with moderate peak flows of fifth stream order. The ratio of water surplus calculated from annual rainfall was (13.15%) and the actual evapotranspiration and soil moisture was (86.82%) according to average annual rainfall during (1990-2013) using Thornthwaite equations to calculate potential and actual evapotranspiration. The water surplus calculated as (35.973) mm distributed into (25.713) mm as natural recharge of groundwater and (10.26) mm surface runoff.

The Comdined Effect of the Self Excited and External Forced Vibrations on the Pressure Disturbution of Short Journal Bearing.

Abdulkareem Abdulrazzaq; Huda Mseer Abdulkadum

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 176-186
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The performance of the journal bearing at the dynamic loading condition under the effect of self-excitation and forced harmonic excitation has been investigated. For this purpose, the conventional form of the Reynolds equation is analyzed numerically using the central finite difference technique with a proper initial and boundary condition. The numerical equations have been written in (FORTRAN-95) language to obtain the results. According to the numerical results obtained, the maximum oil pressure is obtained under the combined effect of forced harmonic vibration and self- excitation is increased by 36.66 percent from those obtained under the self- excitation only

Study Impact of Overall Equipment and Resource Effectiveness onto Cement Industry

Zuher Hassan Abdullah; Lamyaa Mohammed Dawood

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 187-198
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The existence and development of an organization relies on the employment level of equipment and obtainable resources. Whole the resources as worker, equipment, and raw material are to be employed to the level of manufacture criterion, Also the potential impact this relationship may have on decision-making that contributes to improve the productivity of the manufacturing organization. This research aims to employ two operation performance indicators: overall equipment and resource effectiveness to study impact them onto manufacturing system. AL-Kufa /Iraq Cement plant is employed as a case study, also Bar chart tool is used to assess present results. Results are generated using Minitab Version 17. Results show that finish grinding process has lowest factors of performance, quality rate, availability of material, readiness, and availability of facility which lead to reduce OEE and ORE performance indicators of 65.02 % and 15.45%.

Experimental and Theoretical Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Two Way Slabs Strengthened by Steel Fiber Ferrocement Layers at Tension Zone

Mazen D. Abdullah

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 199-211
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An experimental and analytical behavior of strengthened reinforced concrete two way slabs by steel fiber ferrocement layers ,this study included testing 14 simply supported two way slabs, which include 1 control slab, 13 strengthened slabs. In the strengthened slabs the effect of the ferrocement layers with; steel fiber content in the ferrocement mortar of (0.25,0.5,0.75.1.1.25%), thickness of ferrocement layers, the compressive strength for ferrocement mortar and wire mesh layers number of ferrocement was investigated. The mid span deflection at ultimate load and cracks pattern were discussed. All the reinforced concrete slab specimens were designed of the same dimensions and reinforced identically to fail in flexure. Simply supported conditions for all slabs has bean tested under central concentrated load. The experimental results show that; the ultimate loads and mid span deflection of strengthened reinforced concrete slabs were more effected by using the steel fiber on the ferrocement mortar, increasing the thickness of ferrocement and the compressive strength of ferrocement. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis has been used to conduct the analytical investigation, ANSYS (Version 16.0) computer program was used in this study. The analytical result from modeling in ANSYS program exhibited a good agreement with experimental results.

Enhancing the Punching Behavior of High Strength Concrete Flat Plates Subjected to Repeated Load by Using Shear Reinforcement

Nameer Abdalameer Alwash; Ghalib Mohsin Habeeb; Hussein Talab Nhabih

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 212-227
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The present study includes an experimental and numerical investigations for the punching behavior of shear reinforced square simply supported flat plates of high strength concrete (HSC) subjected to repeated load. The experimental program consists of testing four flat plate models. They were of the same overall dimensions of plate, (900×900×100) mm and dimensions of column (150×150×300) mm. The main variable has been considered in the experimental study is: type of shear reinforcement (three models): closed stirrups, headed shear studs and bent bars. Finally, a fourth model (without shear reinforced) served as control model. From the results of this work, It was found that the closed stirrups is the best type of shear reinforcement because this type is highly increase punching shear strength (about 92%) , rotation capacity, simple and cost-effective. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis has been carried out to conduct the numerical investigation of the general behavior of HSC flat plat models. ABAQUS (Version 6, copyright 2013) computer program was used in this work. A comparison between numerical and experimental results showed good validity of the numerical analysis where the average difference ratio based on the ultimate load was less than 3.67% for all analyzed models.

An Experimental Study of the Thermal Performance of Solar Air Collector Inclined (75o) on the Horizontal Plane

Hasasn Ali Jurmut

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 228-235
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In this paper, an experimental study of the thermal performance of the solar air collector manufactured of galvanized iron sheet with dimension 100×120cm, frame width 20cm, has holes 0.5cm arrangement on horizontal and vertical, the collector inclined at an angle (75o) on the horizontal plane. All author faces of the collector (four sides and background) are insulations in order to minimize the thermal losses .All the result recorded in winter season for two different days one of them sunny and the other was cloudy. The result shows the effect of the angle of collector gives more heat to the collector, hence higher outlet temperature, especially in sunny day. Maximum outlet temperature of the collector (35.5o when inlet temperature 18o) and maximum Nusselt number(Nu) at twelve o’clock of the sunny day more than the cloudy day. At the end its high system efficiency and good collector effectiveness.

Assessment of The Asphalt Produced in Some Factories of Asphalt in Al-Hilla City

Mohammed Karem Abd; Zuhair Dhaher Habeeb; Dhiaa Neama Jabbar

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 236-246
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The purpose of this study is to present an evaluation of the properties and characteristics of asphalt concrete of several hot mix asphalt (HMA) from five factories in Al-Hilla city. The research is divided into two parts. The first part included the laboratory analysis of samples. The second part is evaluation of results according to standard specifications.
The test results included (Asphalt content percent, stability, creep compliance, voids ratio, density, flow, crushed aggregate percent, Loss Angless abrasion and SO3 percent).The results of laboratorial tests indicated that all properties of asphalt mixes were susceptible and possible to be used in the asphaltic roads.
The mixes types prepared and tested according to Marshall method. The values of Marshall stability, creep and density are (9.4, 5.4, 9.8, 9, 8.6), (2.5, 2.7, 2.7, 2.6, 2.3) and (2.334, 2.336, 2.337, 2.333, 2.338) with asphalt content between (4.2 to 4.6) % for all asphalt mixes of different factories.

Characterize Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures Incorporated Ordinary Portland Cement Filler for Local Surface Layer

Mustafa Amoori Kadhim; Shakir Faleh Al-Busaltan; Raid Rahman Almuhanna

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 247-263
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Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures have many environmental, logistical, and economic advantages over conventional Hot Mix Asphalt. Nevertheless, their inferior performance and high water sensitivity at early life attract little attentions. Moreover, it is impossible to apply CBEM as a structural surface layer if left without treatment or enhancement. The main aim of this study is to enhance the properties of CBEM for the hope of using it as a structural layer. Thus, a trial has been made to improve CBEM mechanical and durability properties by replacing the Ordinary Portland Cement by the Conventional Mineral Filler with 3 percentages; namely, 0, 50%, and 100%. CBEM mixtures mechanical properties were evaluated in term of Marshall Stability and Flow, Indirect Tensile Strength, and Wheel Track Test. While Moisture damage was evaluated in terms of Retained Marshall Stability. Test results showed that the addition of 100%OPC filler can improve CBEM mechanical and durability properties efficiently. In terms of mechanical properties results, CBEM comprised 100%OPC, can be used as a structural Surface layer based on local Iraqi specifications limits, where mixture enhanced about 1.9, 1.78, 9,4.85, and 2.6 times in term of MS, MF, rutting deformation resistance, resistance to tensile cracking, and moisture damage resistance, respectively as compared to untreated CBEM. Also, CBEM-100%OPC mix seemed comparable (and sometime superior) to HMA, e.g., resistance to rutting of CBEM is about 6.2 times higher than that of HMA. It’s worth to say that OPC upgrades CBEM to a significant level that enables it to use as a structural layer in terms of the mechanical and the durability properties.

Flexural and Shear Behavior of RC Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fiber Wire Mesh

Rafea Flaih Hassan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 264-273
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This work aims to study the effect of using fiber wire mesh on the flexural and shear properties of RC concrete beams. Six reinforced concrete beams (120*180*1220mm) were tested under two load points. Fiber wire mesh was applied with two manners, first one is three layers as U shape around the section of the beam, the second one is four layers around overall section of beam. The test results indicated that using of fiber wire mesh as additional reinforcement can increase the ultimate load of about (1.85-3.58% in the case of flexural) and (17.7-23.7% in case of shear). Also, results showed that an increasing in first cracking load is obtained from (42.8-85.7% in case of flexural) and from (41.2-76.5% in case of shear). Also the shear behavior of beams becomes more ductile when the fiber wire mesh was used in beams. The cracks of shrinkage was disappeared when the fiber wire mesh surround the section of the beam.

Material Selection for Competition–A Case Study for Air Coolers

Luma A. H. Al Kindi; Amjad Husien Jasim; Entsar Nife Farhan; Batool Ibraheem Jameel

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 274-306
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Competition is one of the most important challenges that is facing the marketing of industrial products in today's markets. In this research study of the impact of material selection factor for air coolers of different materials is applied. Investigation on the air cooler windows which are part of the body of air coolers is conducted. Corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity, strength of material, weight, shape, cost and manufacturing process are the factors that are applied and calculated on three types of materials Aluminum, Galvanized steel and polypropylene. The physical properties of the three mentioned materials are used to calculate Merit Index .The corrosion average, according to Tafel Method depending the corrosion current and adopting contactors for the anodic and cathodic metals behaviors is performed. ANSYS is adopted using the three samples for the selected materials Aluminum, Galvanized steel and polypropylene to measure maximum stress and deflection are measured. Accordingly, the results are compared to choose the best alternative. It is observed that the polypropylene is the best choice depending three factors while the aluminum material is better depending two factors and the galvanized steel is regarded as the best in only one factor, the rest factors are identical when choosing an alternative material for manufacturing the air cooler windows.

Improving The Voided Reinforced Concrete Beams Behavior by Strenthining The Compression Zone Concrete Using Polyvinyl Alcohol

Nabeel Hasan Ali Al-Salim

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 307-317
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Determining dimensions of continuous RC beam depend on the critical span. Practically, changing the dimensions of others spans is difficult. So that, this work aimed to discuss the possibility of adding voids within the beams which its dimensions are more than required in order to reduce the cost and dead load. The selected percent of voids to volume of tested beams was 10%. The shape of voids was a first variable (spherical voids or conic voids). Also, the alteration in behavior when a (5cm) concrete layer thickness of compression zone was replaced with a concrete layer modified with adding polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was investigated, as a second variable. After testing six samples, the result showed that the failure criteria of normal concrete voided beams is transformed from flexural behavior to shear behavior, while the failure criteria of control solid specimen was flexure behavior. Also, the modified beams failed in flexural behavior except the beam with conic voids failed in shear behavior. Corresponding to this transform, the ultimate load varied in the same manner. Where, the normal concrete voided beams failed with lesser ultimate load than control solid beam of about (6.4% and 18.3%) for spherical and conic voids, respectively. While, the ultimate load of modified concrete beams is increased of about (13.8%, 5.4% and 3.1%) for solid beam, spherical and conic voided beams respectively in comparing control specimen.

Development and Empirical Investigation of a Self-Powered UV detector Based-Microcontroller

Haider Al-Mumen

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 318-327
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Titanium dioxide Nano particles have been used as a core material for the design of low-cost sustainable power source, the dye sensitized cell. In this work, dye sensitized cell was investigated to be used as a self-powered ultra violet light detector in a data acquisition system. To enhance the detector robustness, the device was sealed using cross-linked photo resist to isolate it from the environmental effects. The detector was tested in air as well as in water to proof its characteristics in various environmental conditions. High responsivity and fast response were achieved for both discrete and continuous ultraviolet (UV) illuminations. To prove the self-powered property of the sensor, it was interfaced to a microcontroller. Our experimental results confirmed that there is no need of intermediate electronics such as signal conditioning circuit in the interfacing circuit. Furthermore, the detector observed obvious selectivity for different light colors. This characteristic makes it candidate for the development of color sensors.

`Study on Combustion Performance of Diesel Engine Fueled by Synthesized Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Blends

Duraid F. Maki

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 328-339
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The waste cooking oil or used cooking oil is the best source of biodiesel synthesizing because it enters into the so-called W2E field, whereas not only get rid of the used cooking oils, but produce energy from waste fuel. In this study, biodiesel was synthesized from the used cooking oil and specifications are tested. From 1 liter of used cooking oil, 940 ml is gained. The remaining of liter is glycerine and water. A Blend of 20% of biodiesel with 80% of net diesel by volume is formed. Blends of 100% diesel and 100% biodiesel are prepared too. The diesel engine combustion performance is studied. Brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, mean effective pressure, and engine outlet temperature. Cylinder pressure variation with crank angle is analyzed. At last not least, the concentrations of hydrocarbon and nitrogen pollutants are measured. The results showed a significant enhancement in engine power and pollutant gases emitted. There is positive compatible with other critical researches.

A Development Framework for Smart Cities Assessment

Mustafa Khudhair Al-Alwani

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 340-349
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A smart city is rising as an approach and strategy to reduce the troubles produced by rapid urbanization and the growth of urban population. Although, cities continue to develop and purify their social, economic and environmental goals along with the strategies to achieve them, this phenomenon has been discussed by little research yet. However, due to the requiring immediate action or attention for practical application of the principles of smart cities, city authorities, stakeholders and local communities need to know the current reality of their city and where development is being attained in their systems. Therefore, constructing a framework for smart cities assessment will help share or exchange the newcomer strong and weak points, and emphasize where actual development is taking place and update a plan for future developments. Moreover, this assessment is able to assist cities prioritizes actions. This paper developed a guiding assessment framework for smart cites that will help the creating, carefully choosing and priorities of crucial indicators. These indicators can then show the way to the smart cites performance assessment and monitoring. Drawing on the investigation of an extensive and wide collection of literature from a variety of disciplinary areas and based on the conceptual literature on smart cities, in addition to interviews this study identify a good tool to help recognizing of virtual achievement of smart city. Furthermore, it is significant to be taken into consideration in assessing smart city smartness level.