Print ISSN: 1992-0652

Online ISSN: 2312-8135

Issue 2,

Issue 2


Discourse strategies of Al-Sayeda Zainab’s (as) Sermon in Yazid’s Palace

Qasim Obayes Al-Azzawi; Kadhim Shakir Fashal

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 76-88
DOI:

Undoubtedly Sermons play a very vital role as in social aspects , religious ideas , political issues and moral education, etc. The sermon of Al-Sayeda Zainab (S.A.) in the palace of Yazid is proposed to be analyzed in this paper .
On the other hand sermon can be both oral and written. They have to address a wide range of hearers by various social and educational levels. The paper is concerned with the critical discourse analysis of one of the sermons of Al-Sayeda Zainab, specifically, her sermon in Yazid’s palace in Sham. The sermon to be analyzed in the current study is picked up at random among several texts available on the website. The sermon has been records by several writers and uploaded on the website .The study also presents a theoretical background to the concept of critical
discourse analysis. The study adopts two models for the analysis, namely, van Dijk's Ideological Square (1998) for the macro-level analysis, and van Dijk's Ideological Discourse Analysis (1995b) to find out the discursive strategies which are adopted in the sermon of Al-Sayeda Zainab Peace be upon her.

Adaptive Home Automation System by Using Smart Phone Based Artificial Intelligent

Osama Qasim Jumah Al-Thahab; Sara Abbas Radhi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
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The system of Home Automation consider nowadays as a promise technology for living a comfortable life and minimizing the cost of the user homeowner. The system might be accomplished by controlling the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, shading, and lightening. The energy consumed efficiency is get better also the protection system is exists. In this work, a Home Automation System is proposed, so that it performs automatically controlling to some of the appliances in the home. In addition, the proposed system will discover any undesirable movement or fire when the person is out of his home by taking a suitable decision instead of homeowner.
The control unit uses a Smart Phone (Android Mobile). In this work, to gather readings of movements, heating, and lightening, a number of nodes are used (three nodes). Also a Microcontroller uses especial sensors to collect this information, after that sends them wirelessly through WIFI to the Smart Phone for manipulation and taking a convenience decision. Delta Neural Network Learning Rule is use for the first time as the intelligent algorithm to give the decisions for all the readings of sensors, so that it learned after 113259 which take 2280 seconds. In addition, it turns out the automated system to be further smart such that if there is fire or movement into the house, the application will distinguish if this movement for example dangerous or not. The mobile (through the application) then gives a command to send a message (GSM) to the homeowner (Police, or fire station) telling the new situation. Furthermore, the controlling of all convenient appliances at the home automatically for each state.
JAVA Program is use for manipulation process, and then by employing Eclipse Juno IDE program it turn into to an android application that installed into the Mobile. The Microcontroller is Arduino with WIFI shield and Xbee.

A New Approach of Rough Set Theory for Feature Selection and Bayes Net Classifier Applied on Heart Disease Dataset

Eman S.Al-Shamery; Ali A.Rahoomi Al-Obaidi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 15-26
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In this paper a new approach of rough set features selection has been proposed. Feature selection has been used for several reasons a) decrease time of prediction b) feature possibly is not found c) present of feature case bad prediction. Rough set has been used to select most significant features. The proposed rough set has been applied on heart diseases data sets. The main problem is how to predict patient has heart disease or not depend on given features. The problem is challenge, because it cannot determine decision directly .Rough set has been modified to get attributes for prediction by ignored unnecessary and bad features. Bayes net has been used for classified method. 10-fold cross validation is used for evaluation. The Correct Classified Instances were 82.17, 83.49, and 74.58 when use full, 12, 7 length of attributes respectively. Traditional rough set has been applied, the minimum Correct Classified Instances were 58.41 and 81.51 when use 2 length of attributes respectively.

Proposed Network Intrusion Detection System Based on Fuzzy c Mean Algorithm in Cloud Computing Environment

Shawq Malik Mehibs; Soukaena Hassan Hashim

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 27-35
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Nowadays cloud computing had become is an integral part of IT industry, cloud computing provides Working environment allow a user of environmental to share data and resources over the internet. Where cloud computing its virtual grouping of resources offered over the internet, this lead to different matters related to the security and privacy in cloud computing. And therefore, create intrusion detection very important to detect outsider and insider intruders of cloud computing with high detection rate and low false positive alarm in the cloud environment. This work proposed network intrusion detection module using fuzzy c mean algorithm. The kdd99 dataset used for experiments .the proposed system characterized by a high detection rate with low false positive alarm.

New Encrypted Steganography Approach

Saba Mohammed Husain

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 36-46
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The proposed research Provides an approach for hiding an encrypted text in side a digital image. Where the text is encrypted in a complex manner used method of PlayFair to encrypt clear text and to increase security put lettering ciphertext on the geometric shape clockwise and then we write the ciphertext output in the form of lines, taken new ciphertext and converted to Ascii code and then to binary and hidden text in bits least importance in the picture. The results were good by PNSR scale

Intelligent Hypothermia Care System using Ant Colony Optimization for Rules Prediction

Hayder Naser Khraibet AL-Behadili

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 47-46
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Intelligent Hypothermia Care System (IHCS) is an intelligence system uses set of methodologies, algorithms, architectures and processes to determine where patients in a postoperative recovery area must be sent. Hypothermia is a significant concern after surgery. This paper utilizes the classification task in data mining to propose an intelligent technique to predict where to send a patient after surgery: intensive care unit, general floor or home. To achieve this goal, this paper evaluates the performance of decision tree algorithm, exemplifying the deterministic approach, against the AntMiner algorithm, exemplifying the heuristic approach, to choose the best approach in detecting the patient’s status. Results show the outperformance of the heuristic approach. The implication of this proposal will be twofold: in hypothermia treatment and in the application of ant colony optimization.

Alzheimer Disease Diagnosis using the K-means, GLCM and K_NN

Wed Kadhim Oleiwi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 57-65
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Investigation of medical images have major consequence in the field of treatment.in this work ,MR images have been used to distinguish the normal brain from brain with Alzheimer disease .Texture is an native property of all surfaces it contains important facts about the structural organization of the surfaces and their connections neighboring area. In direction to classify texture must be segmented into a number of section that has the similar properties, for this purpose we used k- means algorithm with GLCM for feature extraction ,finally we used k-nearest neighbor algorithm to distinguish between normal and abnormal brain.

Suggested Method for Encryption and Hiding Image using LCG and LSB

Atheer Hussein Zyara

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 66-77
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Maintaining the confidentiality of the data of the very important areas in computer applications , Where many researchers work in the fields of concealment and encryption . So in this research we are working on the combining of the two methods , where confidential data is encrypted by using a proposed method , Then the cover is encrypted (regular image) by LCG algorithm (which generates a series of random numbers) to generate the encrypted cover (irregular image) , After that ,we hide the encrypted data in encrypted cover by depending on the LSB technique, then we convert the irregular image into regular image and thereby getting hidden data in random locations in the cover image , This method is characterized by flexibility in terms of the possibility of hiding the different types of confidential data in different types of media , and durability as that data be hidden in random locations and this what distinguishes the proposed algorithm , and the results showed high security, because the data is hidden in random locations in encrypted image then convert to the original regular image For clarification of the proposed algorithm , it has been applied on a digital image of the gray type using MATLAB language by using the efficiency scales PSNR and MSE .

Exponentiated Transmuted Exponential Distribution

Kareema Abed Al-Kadim; Ashraf Alawi Mahdi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 78-90
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In this research, we introduced the exponentiated transmuted exponential (ETE) distribution. This distribution is more flexible than some distributions so we investigate some of its properties. As well as studying the maximum likelihood estimation of this distribution.

Correlation between Anti cyclic-citrullinated-eptide and rheumatoid Factor Antibodies “levels in” Patients with from Rheumatoid Arthritis

Alaa Hashim Abd-Ali; Taghreed Dhiaa Aljazaeri; Ahmed Abbas Hasan; Doaa Hashim Jawad

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 91-98
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To identify diagnostic utilities of Anti citrullinated protein (ACCP) and Rheumatoid factor (RF) are autoantibodies (Abs directly against an self-individual antigens), Analytical study. The questioner reported for 50 patients with RA were collected from Department of Rheumatology¸ AL˗Sader Teaching Hospital. Serum levels of RF & (ACCP) Abs were determinated by enzyme ˗ linked immunosorbent assay”, while the level of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was determined by westergreen method. Distribution of RA occur in females more than males which reached (80%) & (20%) respectively according to the patients group. The patients divided according to the age into three groups (<30)¸ (30˗50) & (>50). The percent for these groups were (16%)¸ (52%) & (32%). Among the 50 patients with RA¸ CCP and ESR 49 patients (98%) tested positive for (ACCP) antibodies¸ and 22 patients (44%) tested positive for RF. and 37 patients(74% ) tested increasing levels of ESR in RA patients. The mean value of (ACCP) & ESR shows highly significance (P<0∙05), while the RF serum levels increase significantly. Demonstrate the (ACCP) antibodies assay is a useful test for diagnosing RA. However, the use of RF and (ACCP)auto- antibodies in combination further elevated the diagnostic value for RA.

Histological and Morphological Study of Cerebrum and Cerebellum of Albino Rats Treated With Antiandrogen Flutamide

Hanan Jassim Hammod

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 99-108
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The present study was aimed to assess the effects of antiandrogen flutamide on some histological and morphometric cerebrum and cerebellum tissue for white albino rats, Twenty five male rats were divided into five groups each group contains 5 animals, the first and second group regarded as positive and negative control, respectively, while the other groups was treated with flutamide drug orally for 28 days at concentrations of (8, 12, 25 mg/kg/day). Histopathological results revealed that there is a significant increase in cell number of outer granular layers in cerebrum of the groups treated with 25 mg/kg/day compared to positive and negative control group as well as with other treated groups cerebrum, also the results of histopathological pointed that there were no significant differences in cerebellum tissue in all treated groups .
The morphometric results showed that there were no significant differences in thickness of cerebellar layers among different groups , therefore antiandrogen flutamide can be considered as a testosterone modulator. To determine more precise effect of flutamide on the brain, further studies are needed

Molecular Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gastric Biopsy Specimens by PCR

Haider Ali AlNaji; Rabab Omran; Ali AlSherify

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 109-118
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Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with the development of different gastric disorders. Clinical outcome of H. pylori infection related to virulence factors that encoded by genes of this bacteria that can be used in a molecular detection such as the housekeeping genes; ureA and ureC. 16S rRNA is also used in bacterial diagnosis.
Seventy-five patients with dyspeptic symptoms sent to esophago- gastroduodenal scope (OGD) unit at Merjan Hospital in Babylon Province. They were diagnosed by specialist physicians and selected in the current study and were classified 43 patients had gastritis, 23 patients had peptic ulcer disease(PUD), 3 had growth like mass non cancer and 6 were normal as negative control.
The results of multiplex PCR and monoplex PCR revealed that a total of 49 (65.3%) cases were found positive for H. pylori by 16S rRNA and ureA, whereas ureC primer is less sensitive for bacterial detection.

Studying the Optimum Conditions of Hygromycin B Production and Detect their Toxicity

Zahraa Abdulmunim; Rabah N. Jabbar; Abdulwahid B.Al-Shaibani

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 119-130
DOI:

Hygromycin B was extracted with ethyl acetate, which separates organic phase from aqueous phase in the broth culture filtrate, only the aqueous phase showed significant antimicrobial activity by using agar well diffusion technique. At a concentration of 25mg/ml (as crude extract), this phase excreted its activity against the test microorganisms which include; one G(+) bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), five G(–) bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi) and one yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).
After detecting the aminoglycoside hygromycin B by the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method to ensure presence of the antibiotic, same flow rate (Rf) value (0.357) as that of the standard hygromycin B was obtained.
Results of the optimization conditions showed that the highest antimicrobial activity of hygromycin B was obtained at a medium pH of 8 and incubation temperature of 35°C for 10 days. When the toxicity of hygromycin B crude extract under such conditions was examined on mice liver, a mild effects were appeared.

Synthesis Silver Nanoparticles as Antibacterial Against Escherichia coli and Staphlococcus aurous as a Model of Gram- negative and Gram- Positive Bacteria

Anfal Ali Shakir; Iman fadhil Abdul-Husin; Walaa Farhan Obiad

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 131-135
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Bacteria multidrug-resistance (MDR) pathogens led to increasing hospital and community – acquired infections, for which current antibiotic therapies are not effective which represent a growing problem, its well-known that the silver ion and silver nanoparticles have strong effect against microbial. In this study we prepare silver Np in chemical reduction methods and tested it on two type of multidrug resistance bacteria :E-coli and S.aureus. The result showed that the sliver Np has a strong effect against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

In vitro the Antiprotozoal Activity of Zingibar officinale Alcohol Extract and Metronidazole in Entamoeba gingivalis which Isolated from Patients with Periodontal Disease

Raflaa S.H. Hussian

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 136-140
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Entamoeba gingivalis is parasite found in mouth, causes dental disease. This parasite discovered in dental plaque, the last studies found relation between E. gingivalis and periodontal disease. In present study collected 30 samples collected from patient with age (20-30) years, result show infection with this parasite 46.6%. These samples are cultured in TYSGM-9 media, and then treated with different concentration of alcoholic extract ginger and metronidazole which show inhibited growth of parasite at (25, 50, 75,100 μg/ml. )

Effect of MennInfertility on Serum Creatine Kinase Activity

Safa Wahab Azize; NadiaHasan Kadhim

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 141-149
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mThe present study was carried out on 60 patientsm with male factor infertility comparedmwith 60 healthy controls, their ages ranged betweenn20-56 years in Maternity and Childhood Teaching Hilla Hospital and in a biochemistry laboratory of Pharmacy college of Babylon university, between Junem2014 – Junuary 2015. The purpose of this study is to investigate CK activity, serum creatine,mcreatinine levels and semen parametersmin infertile men only ,infertile with DM, smoking ifertile,nand hypertention with infertile patients. The present resultsbshowed a statistically significant deferences (p<0.05) in creatine kinasehactivity, creatine and seminal characteristics while nonmsignificant in creatinine and in Abnormal sperm morphology % .
There were statistically significant deferences betweenkthe biochemical and seminal parameters inodiabetes , hypertension and smoking patients and tomcontrol group at a p valuem(P<0.05). There were no observed significantkdifferences in creatinine and Abnormal sperm morphology % of smokerskcompared to control group (P>0.05). The same resultskwere obtained in diabetic and hypertensionkwhen compared tojcontrol group (P<0.05). Our resultsjindicated that thejdiabetes , hypertension and smoking reducelserum CK creatinine and semen parameters inkmale infertility . Enzymetic activity of CK inkserum is a biochemical marker in determining infertility and this biochemicalkmarker will represents an important diagnostic feature withmseminal parameters in the future.

Synthesis and Characterization of New Copolymers as Asphalt Additives

Firyal M.A; Mohanad Q.H

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 150-162
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Rheological properties of asphalt S50 were improved by adding different prepared copolymers as additives with high homogeneity of asphalts samples. Three types of copolymers were prepared Poly (Indene –Co- maleic anhydride)(A1) Poly (Acrylonitrile –Co- Maleic anhydride) (A2) and Poly (Dipentine –Co-Maleic anhydride) (A3), the cross linking of (A3) to (A3d). by using sulfur.
These copolymers were designed by inserting Maleic anhydride as rings containing through backbone of polymer chains to be high potentially to react with water to protect the crack of pavement .And moisture with inhibit bonding of crack of pavement, Many factors should be considered when prepared the additives to enhanced performance to be convenience cost, beneficial thermal safety , extended life of the asphalt, preparing conditions which gave high thermal resistance with more stabilities, all these prepared copolymer have been characterized by FTIR and H-NMR spectroscopies .Intrinsic viscosities were calculated. softening point and penetration were observed for all asphalts blends which were compared with the asphalt samples, which gave high thermal resistance with more stabilities.
The results showed high properties of these blends when compared with the original asphalt. The physical properties of a specific polymers are determined by the sequence and chemical structure , When polymers are added to asphalt , the properties of the modified asphalt cement depend on polymer characteristic of asphalt and compatibility of polymer with asphalt.
All these prepared copolymers were tested by softening points and penetration for all asphalt blends which were compared with the asphalt sample. All the Improvements made by adding polymers to asphalt included the Increasing the viscosity of the binder service, the thermal susceptibility of the binder, increased the cohesion of the asphalt, Increasing the resistance to permanent deformation, and Improved the resistance to fatigue at low temperatures, improved binder adhesion (higher viscosity of the binder),

A Study of The Geometrical Optimization and Energies of Carbon Nanoribbons: B3LYP/DFT

Ayat Abdulsadah.Y; H. I. Abbood; Rabab Saadoon Abdoon

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 163-172
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This study deals with the geometrical optimization and energies of three structures of carbon nanoribbon using the B3LYP-DFT hybrid functional. 6-31G basis sets was employed to study the effect of the ribbons length on the energies and electronic properties of the structures. The results showed that the hybrid functional used is suitable for calculations the geometrical parameters of the structures. So, the energy gap was increased with increasing the length of the ribbon due to the change of both the HOMO and LUMO energies of the carbon nanoribbons. The shortest the ribbon the higher electronic softness and the more reactive it is as compared to the long ribbon.

Effect of Cadmium Sulfide Particles on A.C Electrical Properties of (PVA-PVP) blends

Khansaa Saleem Sharba

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 173-178
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The (PVA-PVP- CdS) composites were made with different weight percentages of Cadmium sulfide particles as a filler. All samples were prepared as films by solution casting way. The experimental outcomes show that the dielectric constant increase with rising of the frequency of applied electrical field and concentration of the filler. Dielectric loss decreases with the increasing the frequency while it increased with the increases of concentration of the Cadmium sulfide. The A.C electrical conductivity increases with increasing the filler and frequency for the (PVA-PVP- CdS) composites.

The Effect of Adding Antimony Trioxide (Sb2O3) On A.C Electrical Properties of (PVA-PEG) Films

Akeel Shakir Alkelaby

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 179-184
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In this work, many samples have been prepared by adding Antimony Trioxide (Sb2O3) to the polyvinyl alcohol-poly ethylene glycol (PVA-PEG). The effect of the Sb2O3 added as a filler with different weight percentages on the A.C electrical properties have been investigated. The samples were prepared as films by solution cast technique. The experimental results of the A.C electrical properties show that the dielectric constant increase with the increasing frequency of applied electrical field and concentration of the Antimony Trioxide. Dielectric loss decrease with the increasing the frequency, while it increases with the increase of the concentration of the Antimony Trioxide. The A.C electrical conductivity increase with increasing the Antimony Trioxide contain and frequency for the composition.

Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Hydatid Cyst Disease in Babylon Province, During the years 2010-2015

Aulla Abbas Fadhil; Hasan Alwan Baiee

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 185-199
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Background:-Hydatid disease is a chronic parasitic disease highly endemic in Iraq, it has serious health and economic consequences.
Objectives:-To identify epidemiologic features in (person, place, and time) module of hydatid cyst disease and describing its clinical features among patients admitted to public hospitals for surgery.
Methodology:-This cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing the clinical records of 208 hydatid cyst patients who were admitted to eight public hospitals in Babylon province during 6 years period (2010-2015), the records of all patients of hydatid disease were studied single handy by the researcher, incomplete, duplicated records and non surgically operated patients were excluded from this study. The period of the study extended from February 2016 through June 2016, the following independent variables were studied; such as socio-demographic data, clinical presentation of the disease and the organs involved and other characteristics of cyst.
Results:-This study revealed that the average and the standard deviation of patients age were (34.13±16.17), females were significantly more infected than males (p>0.05), liver was the most infected organ (82.2%),more than two thirds of cases(70.2%) had a single cyst. The disease was predominantly present among rural dwellers(55.8%).About 15% of cases had cysts more than (10cm) in diameter. The predominant presentation of the disease was abdominal pain(52.4%) followed by abdominal mass.
This study revealed that this disease was predominated in people with low socioeconomic status.
Conclusion:-Hydatid cyst disease is an endemic disease in Babylon province, it was more common in females, low socioeconomic status groups, rural dwellers; liver is the most commonly infected organ. A strategic plan should be put to eliminate this disease in our society.

Role of anti-Mullerian Hormone and Gamma-glutamyl-transpepetidase in the Sera and Seminal Plasma in Infertile Men in Baghdad

Farhan A. Risan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 200-207
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The study was carried out through the period from February /2015 to June 2015, for estimation the concentration of anti-Mullerian hormone ( AMH) in the seminal plasma & sera of infertile males compared with healthy group as control , also the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase level were measured in the seminal plasma and sera of patients and healthy , (79 ) infertile male and ( 32 ) healthy , with age ranged from( 18 – 49 ) year for both groups .
The diagnosis done by macroscopic and microscopic examination of semen according to W.H.O. standard criteria. A significant decrement (P (0.05 > was observed for male with oligozoospermia as compared to other groups of male infertility factor. There was significance elevation (P (0.05>for male complaining from teratozoospermic as compared to normozoospermic , oligozoospermic and a zoospermia.
Similarly, significant Increment (P (0.05 >in seminal plasma (AMH) for male suffering from oligozoospermia compared to other groups. Meanwhile teratozoospermic patients showed significant increment P 0.05 >as compared with other infertile groups. Also azoospermic patients revealed significant reduction P 0.05 >in the concentration of seminal plasma AMH compared with other infertile group.
Normozoospermic male showed a significant (P > 0.05) elevation in the concentration of GGT when compared with other infertile groups . Teratozoospermic patientsshowed a significant decrement (P( 0.05 > in the concentration of GGT . A stheuozoopermic patients showed significant elevation
(p ≤ 0.05) of concentration of seminal fluid GGT, while oligozoospermia patients significant decrement (P (0.05 >as compared with other infertile groups .

Epidemiologic Features of Cholera Epidemic In Al Hilla City-Babylon Province-Iraq 2015

Zahraa Malik; Hasan Alwan Baiee

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 208-216
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Background: Cholera is a diarrheal disease, if untreated, leads to high morbidity and mortality. It has economic and social impact, several epidemics occurred in Iraq during the last years.
Objective: To describe the cholera epidemic in a person place,and time epidemiologic model
Methodology: This is a descriptive cross sectional study (describe the occurrence of disease in person , place ,and time descriptive epidemiologic approach) . Data were collected using records of patients admitted to merjan and pediatric teaching hospitals in Hilla city who were diagnosed and confirmed by stool culture(according to the central public health laboratory results) during the period of the last epidemic (from the first of August through November 2015). The duration of this study started from the beginning of February to the end of May 2016. A sample of150 confirmed cholera cases were selected in a systematic random sample technique ,the missed data of these cases were completed by phone after getting the verbal consents of patients or their families .
Results: This study revealed that the peak frequency incidental cholera cases was on September, and most of cholera cases occured in Al-Tajea district. The most affected age group was (5-20), no significant difference was reported according to gender. p>0.05 most of the cases were illiterate , lived in overcrowded houses , The disease is more common in internally displaced persons and those who drink water from wells and rivers.
Conclusion: Cholera cases were at highest incidental rate in September and in Al-Tajea district, the most affected age group was(5-20years) , the disease was more common among Illiterate people, living in overcrowded houses . Internally displace and those who use river and well water .

Prosthetic Need between Different Age and Gender With Patient Attending College of Dentistry,Tikrit University

Reem Ahmed Shihab; Luma Nassrat Arab

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 217-224
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Background: the most important factor that affects speak, mastication and aesthetics is tooth loss which in turn imitated on the quality of life. The goal of our research was to evaluate the prosthetic need in sample attending prosthetic department and compare between age and gender.
Material and methods: A sample of 244 patients was randomly chosen for questionnaire in the (Removable Prosthodontics Clinic) into College of Dentistry-Tikrit University. All subjects were divided in six groups according to their age and also divided according to gender. Intraoral examinations were performed and reasons for extraction were recorded. All statistic calculations were performed using SPSS 23 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences).
Results: The total number of 244 patients was involved in this study: 165 (67.6%) males and 79 (32.4%) females. We found that the higher percentage of patients were in the age group of (20-29) for males which was (23%, 56 patient), while the higher female percentage was found in the age group of (40-49) which was 11.5% . Reasons for extraction recorded the higher percentage due to Caries for both males (75.2%) & females (81 %) as suspected.
Conclusion:The number of patient attending prosthetic department male more than female. Dental caries were the principal cause for extractions in younger patients followed by periodontitis. Society needs more motivation about dental health and care.

Polymorphism of Microsatellite markers and Their Association with Egg Production Traits in Iraqi Chickens

Israa Luay AL-jaryan; Ali Hmood AL-saady; Fadil Rasul Al-Khafagy

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 225-234
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The present study was conducted on local Iraqi chickens and two strains of commercial laying hens (ISA Brawn and Ross Hen) as control. To estimate genetic Diversity using microsatellites and their association with egg production traits, three microsatellites markers, located on 1, 5 and E5C10 chromosomes were used in pesent study. A total of 100 varieties of three chicken populations were genotyped for three microsatellite markers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate the genetic Diversity (GD) among populations using Nei Index similarity mean.
The present study show that local chicken populations were more diverse than control populations. Genetic Diversity among populations was obtained using Nei Index similarity mean. The present results indicate that the Highest GD among local chickens (0.82) and the lowest GD (0.4) and when comper local chickens with control strains found that the highest GD was (0.76) when comper with ISA Brawn, and (0.702) when comper the study population with Ross Hen strain and the lowest GD was (0.673) when comper with ISA Brawn strain, (0.661) when comper the study population with Ross Hen strain, that’s mean the Three microsatellite genetic markers applied in the present study success to reveal high degree of similarity among the three population used here. The genetic distance revealed that local chickens are mostly related to ISA Brawn strain more than Ross Hen strain.

Biosorption of Cd(II) and Co(II) Ions from Contaminated Water onto Cyanophyta: Single And Binary Ion Exchange Isotherm

Salim Hrez Jessam Al-Khazraji

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 235-249
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This study used both single and binary biosorption of Cd(II) and Co(II) ions from a synthetic contaminated water onto a dead blue-green (Cyanophyta) algae as biosorbent of heavy metals. Experimental parameters included pH, initial metal concentrations, agitation speeds, contact time and temperatures were investigated. The uptake capacities were 38.4 and 23.5 mg/g for Cd (II) and Co(II), respectively. The best pH values were 5 for Co (II) and Cd (II), respectively, and the contact time was1. 5 hr. A sequence of batch experiments was performed in a batch device in order to get equilibrium isotherm data of single and binary metals solutions for biosorption. The ion exchange mechanism was the base absorption of these metals, along with the light metal release like sodium, magnesium, calcium and potassium therefore a model ion exchange had been found appropriate to describe the process of biosorption. However, the calculated affinity constant (K) sequence for both single and binary system was 2.33, 5.43 respectively, for Cd (II) and 1.87, 2.46 for Co (II) with less than 5% percentage error; these values remain in both systems that the Cd(II) was the strongest one. The affinity constant in the single and binary system was KCd > KCo.

Generation of Fuzzy Rules by Subtractive Clustering

Hussen Ateya Lafta; Zahraa A. Mohammed

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 25050-259
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This work depends on two stages. First one, "subtractive method", clustering algorithm, used for identifying the relationships between data points in order to build system, where the data point gathers with other points to make cluster of the same features. These groups will be used in the second part of the work to construct fuzzy IF…THEN rules, which controls how the system works. The number of rules and its parts depend on these clusters. While the Takagi-Sugeno Kang (TSK) fuzzy inference modal was used. The scope of this work is applied to heart disease diagnosis.

Determinationfo Anti-mürellian Hormone and Vitamin D in Breast Cancer Patients.

Nadia. H. Kadhum

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 260-269
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Anti-mürellian hormone and Vitamin D in patients with proven breast cancer have been estimated to find the possibility of using such parameters as biomarkers in the diagnosis of breast cancer patients compared to control.
Sera of (32) patients had been taken to estimate the levels of [AMH] & [VIT.D] at the period (March/2017-Julyl/2017) .All studied patients samples were female with the range age (30-41) years. The present results showed a significance difference in statistic results at (P<0.05)fo AMH & VIT.D concentration of patients compader to healthy control.
The results also showed a good correlation between [AMH] & [VIT.D] of patients which the value of correlation is (-0.91749) at level 0.05 and o.o1. The relation between A MH&VIT.D is inverse.
There were( 9) patients detcelloc the samples before chemotherapy treatment and( 23) patients rieht samples when they treated with chemotherapy. According to t-test there was significant difference in both [AMH] & [VIT.D] between the previous groups at level (0.05).
So this study recommended to use [AMH] & [VIT.D] in early detecting of the breast cancer disease in women at fertile age .

The validity of Ankle- brachial Index in Free Fibular Flap Surgery for Facial Reconstruction.

Mahdi Yakoob Gazar

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 270-274
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Ankle brachial index test is used as a guide in maxillofacial surgery to detect any abnormalities associated with circulation in the lower extremities. This index is about 1 or 1.1 in normal conditions, if it is decreased or increased this mean that there are some abnormalities in haemodynamic such as peripheral arterial diseases. A study carried out in Al-Hilla surgical hospital including 20 patients for estimation of ankle-brachial index(volunteers) to show their fitness for free flap surgery. The results were normal in 13 patients, most of them in young adult groups.

Impact of Bleeding Disorders: Hemophilia A, B And C on Dental Hygiene in a Sample of Children In Hilla city

Wissam Hamid Edan AL-Janabi; Moukhlad Louay Ali Al-Falluji

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 275-279
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Bleeding tendency is the manifestation of a wide range of abnormalities that can basically classify into two major categories according to etiology; these are the inherited and acquired categories. The pathologic defect resides in one of the three major sequential physiologic processes of blood homeostasis. Defects in coagulation include mainly inherited defect in the synthesis of one of the members of factors of coagulation such as factor VIII (Hemophilia A) and factor IX (Hemophilia B) and to a much less extent factor XI (Hemophilia C). The current study aimed to explore the oral health status in a sample of hemophilia male children. The present case control study included 22 children with hemophilia disorders and 50 apparently healthy aged matched control children. The age of hemophilia children ranged from 2-14 years. Dmft and DMFT were assessed and the results showed that patients had significantly higher scores indicating poor oral hygiene.
Conclusion: hemophilia is a predisposing factor for poor dental hygiene and that protective measures should be seriously considered in such population to avoid serious complication following invasive dental procedures.

A Hybrid Approach to Steganography System Based on Quantum Encryption and Chaos Algorithm

Zaid A. Abod

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 280-294
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This paper proposes a hybrid system for secretly embedding images into the dithered multilevel image. Confident hybridizations between steganography and quantum encryptions are either rare in literature or suffer a poor effectiveness in secure communication. This paper scrambles and divides the secret image into groups to be embedded in the blocks of the cover image using three chaos algorithms. These are Lorenz map, Henon map, and Logistic map algorithms. The encryption of embedded images conducted using the quantum one-time pad. Results showed that the proposed hybrid system succeeded in embedding and combining images with quantum cryptography algorithms.

A New Algorithm of Automatic Complex Password Generator Employing Genetic Algorithm

Sura Jasim Mohammed

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 295-302
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Due to the occurred increasing in information sharing, internet popularization, E-commerce transactions, and data transferring, security and authenticity become an important and necessary subject. In this paper an automated schema was proposed to generate a strong and complex password which is based on entering initial data such as text (meaningful and simple information or not), with the concept of encoding it, then employing the Genetic Algorithm by using its operations crossover and mutation to generated different data from the entered one. The generated password is non-guessable and can be used in many and different applications and internet services like social networks, secured system, distributed systems, and online services. The proposed password generator achieved diffusion, randomness, and confusions, which are very necessary, required and targeted in the resulted password, in addition to the notice that the length of the generated password differs from the length of initial data, and any simple changing and modification in the initial data produces more and clear modification in the generated password. The proposed work was done using visual basic programing language.

Effect Dispersibility of MWCNT on the Mechanical and Tribological Performance of Polymer Nanocomposite Coating

Ammar Al-kawaz

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
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To utilize MWCNTs as influential reinforcement in polymer composites, reasonable dispersion and a satisfactory interfacial bond between the MWCNTs and polymer matrix must be ensured. The chemical modification of carbon nanotube surface (CNTs) could enhance their chemical compatibility and dispersibility with the polymer matrix. In this study, polymer matrix composites reinforced by pristine MWCNT and MWCNT grafted PMMA (CNTPMMA) were prepared. A comparative study executed to analyze the impact of MWCNT dispersion on the mechanical and tribological performance of the resultant polymer nanocomposite coating. The results showed that the dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the base polymeric material was improved after being grafted with polymethyl meth acrylate chains, and thus improved their mechanical and tribological performance in the composite coatings.

Employing 3R Techniques in Managing Cement Industry Waste

Lamyaa Mohammed Dawood; Zuher Hassan Abdullah

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 8-19
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Waste management conserves human health, ownership, environment, and keeps valuable natural resources. Lean-green waste of an organization’s operations can be decreased through implementation 3R (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycling) techniques by reduction of manufacturing system wastes. This research aims to integrate lean-green waste of the manufacturing system throughout employing 3R techniques and weighted properties method in order to manage waste. Al-Kufa cement plant is employed as a case study. Results are generated using Edraw Max Version 7 and Excel. Overall results show reduce technique of lean-green waste management has major contribution of 55 % and recycling technique has minor contribution 18 %. Defects waste has major integration of lean-green waste, while air emissions waste has minor integration of lean-green waste.

Behavior of Steel- Lightweight Concrete Composite Beams with Partial Shear Interaction

Fareed Hameed Majeed

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 34-20
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This experimental work along with an analytical analysis is investigated. The behavior of simply supported steel beams with lightweight and normal concrete slab that have the same compressive strength and slump was studied. Eight specimens tested under mid-point load and analysis by plastic analysis theory. Four of composite beams have a steel I-section beam with normal concrete slab and the other four with lightweight concrete slab. Different degrees of shear interaction were considered (100% to 40%). It was observed that there are no essential differences between the modes of failure that appeared in the tested composite beams with normal and lightweight concrete. Also, it was noted that there is a decrease in the initial stiffness and also in the ultimate strength of the composite beams when the concrete of the flanges for the tested specimens was replaced from normal to lightweight concrete for different degrees of shear connections. The analytical results for all tested beam specimens, except that with normal concrete and 100% degree of shear interaction, gave overestimate results compared with those of experimental results.

Basins and Cultivated Lands Recharge Evaluation on The Basis of Experimental & Mathematical Analysis in Hashimiya-Iraq

Moutaz Al Dabbas; Najah M. Lateef; Arkan Radi Ali

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 84-35
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A mathematical, field measurements and laboratorial study was adopted to evaluate the validity of many mathematical forms including Horton Model for estimating infiltration rate and infiltration potential, they are; power, polynomial and mixed formulas. The work composed of infiltration field measurements for Hashyimia Region located in the middle of Iraq which for simplicity and accuracy is divided into nine administration agricultural sectors namely as; Jerboeyia, Hashyimia, Niwedra, Tebra, Sada, Zineyia, H3, Fayadhiya, and Bazul sectors. The current study proved that the power formula is the best fit to the measuring data than polynomial, mixed and Horton models since the power formula offers 0.996 correlation factor whereas polynomial, mixed and Horton offer 0.947, 0.958 and 0.84 respectively. It is worth to mention that in all cases Horton Model offers less infiltration potential after 2hrs since infiltration process is started
A real infiltration depth that accumulated in a subsurface bearing layer is also estimated depending upon field sampling and laboratorial testing of geologic formation textures to determining the porosities throughout Hashyimia Region.

Experimental Investigation on the Multi-metallic Cu-Zn Nanofluids Heat Transfer Enhancement and Pressure Losses

Ammar Fakhir Abdulwahid

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 49-61
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Metallic nanofluids are suspensions of metallic particles of nanometre size in base fluids. The combination of two kinds of metallic particles mixed at the same volume ratio is known as multi-metallic nanoparticles. These multiple metallic particles of nanometre size were suspended in deionized H2O via the use of ultrasonic vibrators at varying volume fractions as well as variations in the ratios of metallic/metallic particles of nanometre size. In our study the dynamic viscosity, the nanofluid’s heat conductivities were determined for varying temperatures and volume fractions. The coefficient of thermal transmission of the flowing nanofluid in the constant wall heat flux tube were determined experimentally in laminar condition. The results revealed huge thermal transmission enhancement comparison to the base fluids. The pressure loses were illustrated for all nanofluids. The comparisons of the different metallic and multi-metallic types of the nanofluids were showed that Cu nanofluids have a greater coefficient of thermal transmission compared with the Cu-Zn, Zn at equal volume fractions.

Parametric Study of the Effect of the Suspension Composition on the Electrophoretic Deposition of Alumina

Alaa Abdul hasan Atiyah; Saad Badry Hasson Farid; Awham Jumah Salman

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 62-68
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Electrophoretic deposition (EDP) is gaining increasing attention both in science and industry because this method has allowed the formation of thin films or multilayer films of controlled thickness and morphology. The method enables the formation of films on substrates of complex geometry that suits for various applications.
This work is a study the effect of polyethylene glycol as a binder-suspension agent, the amount the solid loading (alumina particles), and the effect of the toluene as a dielectric liquid, on the pH of suspension, the final thickness and green density of the deposed parts.
It has been shown that a certain amount of polyethylene glycol when added to ethanol or ethanol-30%toluene has given good results for both the green density and the thickness.

Building Energy Performance and the Influence of the Operational Parameters in an Educational Hospital

N.A.Madlool

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 69-77
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The speed at which the demand for energy is increasing around the world has led to anxiety over supply insufficiency. The difficulties associated with setting up energy infrastructure is an additional concern. This paper reviews the amount of energy required by structures and identifies different variables that influence the use of energy by buildings. The energy requirement of a teaching hospital in Iraq was determined (i.e. its energy performance was determined). The energy performance of a building is related to its Building Energy Index (BEI). BEI is measured in kWh/m2/yr and is an indication of how efficient a building is with respect to its usage of energy, i.e. the value of the BEI of buildings helps to ascertain which building is more efficient than the other in their usage of energy.The results of this review indicate that the load and time usage factors are directly proportional to the BEI. The hospital’s BEI was determined to be 235 and this value was compared with those of other studies.

Active Controller of Cantilever Beam Excited by Impact Load

Essam Zuheir Fadhel

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 78-87
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This work investigated the active control system of cantilever beam excited by impact external load. The control design of the system was modeled and simulated by MATLAB program for the cantilever beam using finite element technique. The controller active system used motor attached at fixed end of the beam to control the dynamic response and to give accurate results under external excitation.
The natural frequencies of the system obtained were compared with Ansys software and other research results. The comparisons shown good agreement with maximum percentage difference was (0.76)%. It was obtained from the results that the dynamic response for controlled cantilever beam exhibited better observation of the impact load, and the reduction of the overshoot was 80% approximately comparing between control and uncontrolled response for steel and aluminum beam for applied impact load. It obtained that the type of material had large effect on the vibration of the beam.

Examining the Relationship between Ozone and other Air Pollutants in Al-Hilla City

Ala; a Hamed Emran Al-Husseini

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 88-96
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Air pollution must take more attention because its effects on human health. One of the most important air pollutants is ground-level ozone O3, which plays an important role in air quality and climate change on the earth. Ozone affected by the other air pollutants, so this paper attempt to study the relationship between hourly, daily and monthly ground-level ozone concentration and hourly, daily and monthly air pollutant concentrations and its effect on ground-level ozone concentration. The other air pollutants are: sulfur dioxide SO2, nitrogen oxides NOx, nitrogen monoxide NO, nitrogen dioxide NO2 and carbon dioxide CO2. The monitoring station is in Babylon University in the south of Al-Hilla city, Iraq for the period 2015-2016. By using statistical analysis, correlation coefficient and some statistics for all air pollutants are computed. Results are: the maximum average ozone concentration is in the summer months June, July and August 39.30 ppb, 45.05 ppb and 36.63 ppb respectively and along the day the peak average ozone concentration is in the afternoon because of high temperature and high solar radiation intensity which is increasing the photochemical activity of ozone. There is no significant correlation between ozone and sulfur dioxide SO2, carbon dioxide CO2 (ρ > 0.05). High significant correlation is appeared between ozone and nitrogen oxides forms (ρ < 0.01). To express the complex relation between ozone and nitrogen oxide forms, proportions such as NO/NO2 and (NOx-NO)/NO is determined which explain the ozone photochemical activity. Ozone concentration decreases with increasing of NO/NO2 and increases with (NOx-NO)/NOx increasing.

Excess Thermodynamic Properties and Ftir Spectroscopy of Aceton-Isopropanol Liquid Binary Mixture

Ali A. Jazie; Mustafa J. Nuhma

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 97-105
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Experimental investigation was done using different instruments for the testing the properties of density, surface tension and viscosity in the case of pure and mixture system at the normal temperature of 25 oC and 1 atm. Excess volume was found to exhibit negative value at a mole fraction of 0.5. The deviation in the surface tension and viscosity were found of a positive value at the mole fraction value of 0.5. The experimental excess properties were correlated using the Redlich-Kister (RK) equation and showed an accepted standard deviation. The intermolecular interaction between acetone and isopropanol was found of negligible effect and showed a weakness in the hydrogen bonding according to the FTIR spectra for the mixture of acetone and isopropanol which agreed with the positive values of excess molar volume. Moreover, the values of surface tension and viscosity deviations were found of negative values for all the mole fraction range studied.

Power optimization of wind mill turbine blade for different cross section

Muhammad A.R Yass; Hussein Ali Hussein; Mahmood Abdulzahra Shkara

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 127-134
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The aim of this paper was to attain best optimization for twist angle and the chord of wind mill blade by using CFD code with Schmitz, Betz and .Lift to drag twist optimization along with Genetic Algorithm method. The technical point of view to change the cross section of the blade by using symmetry airfoil (NACA-0012), unsymmetrical airfoil (NACA-4412) and supercritical airfoil (Eppler-417). The best optimization Method was Schmitz chord optimization and lift to drag for twist optimization which increase the Cp 10.3% for Eppler 417 , 9.5% for NACA 4412 and 16% for NACA 0012. All results were plotted and tabulated for all optimization results.

Effect of sulfur and Nano- carbon black on the mechanical properties of hard rubber

Mohamed Hamza Al-Maamori; Ahmed Fadhil Hamza; Ahmed Ehsan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 127-134
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To improve the properties of hard rubber(Ebonite) from natural rubber, added Nano-Carbon black, where measured the properties of tensile, density, hardness and the properties of the vulcanization of a group of samples with different amount of sulfur from 18-36 pphr and different of carbon black (18-26-30) pphr. The results showed that the best carbon black ratio is 30 pphr, where it gives a balance between tensile properties of hand and toughness and flexibility of on the other hand and reduce brittleness in hard rubber.

Investigation of the Corrosion and Scaling Potentials of Raw and Treated Water and Its Effect on Concrete Tanks at Al-Tayyaraa Water Treatment Plant

Layla Abdulkareem Mokif; Zainab Hashim Abbas; Noor Alaa Abdulhusain

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 135-140
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This study is conducted to evaluate corrosion and scaling potentials of raw and treated water at Al-Tayyaraa water treatment plant during a period of twelve months, starting from January to December 2016. Three indices of corrosion and scaling in this study are considered including Ryznar Index (RI), Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), and Aggressive Index (AI). Water quality parameters pH, Alk, (Ca), temperature, calcium as CaCO3, and (TDS) are measured. For raw water, the values of LSI and RI are (0.14-0.504) and (6.956 -7.62), respectively, whereas for treated water, the values of LSI and RI are (0.03-0.4) and (7.02-7.7), respectively. The values of AI are (11.77-12) for raw water and (11.67-11.948) for treated water. The calculated values of Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) reveal that the treated and raw water are balanced to some faint coating (light scale forming). The values of RI point that the raw and treated water are corrosive and values of aggressive index show that the water is moderate corrosion and no obvious effect on concrete tank at water treatment plants.

Effect of Single and Double Pass Arc Welding on HAZ of High Carbon Steel Weldments

Alaa Abdul Hasan Atiyah; Shaker J. Edrees; Farhad M. Kushnaw

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 141-151
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Measurements of heat affected zone width for multi high carbon steel joint in case of single and double pass arc welded have been studied. These measurements are carried out in accompanying of hardness and microstructural observations. Knowing that, high carbon steel has a poor weld ability and most of welding processes are carried out for repairing components. It is found that a preheating was a very important parameter in identifying the width of heat-affected zone. Preheating the joint at 450°C was found to gives less width heat affected zone (i.e.5.93mm) in the case of single pass welding practices. While, in the case of double pass welding, the heat affected zone becomes wider because the excessive heating during welding cycle. The double pass welding has coarsening the structure of first pass. Microscopic observations indicated that the structure of HAZ of high carbon steel was mainly lath martensite (ML) under the condition of lower weld heat input.

Fabrication and Characterization of Chromium Nanotube Using (AAO) Template

Rana Afif Anaee; Ahmed Rajih Hassan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 152-159
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In the current research, the fabricating of Cr nanotubes was done by electrochemical deposition in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as template. Characterization of fabricated Cr nanotubes were a achieved by XRD, SEM/EDS and TEM. These techniques indicated that the deposited chromium nanotubes have high purity within experimental conditions, the peaks in XRD was good agreement with JCPDS cards, SEM images showed the growth of ordered nanotubes in one plane perpendicular to the template (AAO). The purity of fabricating nanotubes was confirmed by EDS analysis, while the produced single walled nanotubes was shown from TEM images with open ends of tubes. 60 nm as diameter was obtained for fabricating Cr nanotubes.
The fabrication of Cr nanotubes suggests producing quintuple bonds (Cr ≡ Cr) to form tubes without any chance to deposit chromium as particles.

Mobile Tower Radiation Protection System

Jabbar Slman Hussein

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 160-166
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Clean environment is one of the most necessarily needs for Human life. So what about mobile effect and its towers pollution? It's effect on public health? Effect of huge groan of mobile networks. In counting of these dangers that will harm us from mobile towers in the far run, was the reasons for writing this research, came this study to look at the mobile towers and mobile effects possible health harm for the purpose of diagnosis of these effects and to suggest ways that can be used to avoid or minimize the risks.
Faraday Cage, is the solution suggested here, also there are many other solutions for this problem, a Faraday cage is a metallic enclosure that stops the entry or escape of an EM field.
Also, two experiments are accomplished, first one showing the effect of Faraday cage on preventing the EMR from mobile cellphone, and the second experiment gives the effect of Faraday cage on preventing the EMR from mobile tower EMR on human health listed in the research, that have been done by using conducting shell (grid) design according the EM wavelength used by three company's mobile working in Iraq, the result show good isolations

Dignosis of Pulley-Belt System Faults Using Vibration Analysis Technique

Ali Raad Hassan; Khalid Mohsen Ali

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 167-180
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This work presents the pulley-belt system faults like unbalance, misalignment, belt worm and resonance. Which dedicated by vibration analysis technique, this system built and an experimental results had been obtained to find out the types of faults that appeared in the manufactured system. A selected faults have been created where the resulted dynamic response has been analyzed. The vibration results obtained by manufactured system by sensors ADXL335 (3-axis accelerometer) mounted on bearing brackets of drive and driven shafts. These sensors connected to Arduino type mega 2560 (microcontroller) which sending the data of vibration to the laptop in order to display it in Sigview software as a time and frequency domain band by FFT (fast Fourier transform).The results of FFT explained the effect of each type of faults comparing with the optimum condition FFT of the system.

Flexural Behavior of Self-Compacting RC Continuous Beams Strengthened by CFRP Sheets

Sabih Z. Al-Sarraf; Dhiyaa Hamoodi Mohammed

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 181-191
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This search presented an experimental study of the flexural behavior of self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams externally strengthened by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) Sheets. The practical study contained eight self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams (with two span), each span had (1500) mm length and (150x250) mm cross sectional dimensions. Seven of these beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets with and without external anchorage. The experimental variables included location of CFRP sheets and anchor type and location.
The results, shows that the beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets provided improvement in ultimate loads reached (60.71%). The usage of CFRP in the anchorage zone indicated an effective method in comparison to increasing the CFRP sheets lengths or extending them up to the support or under the loading points. Test results also showed that side strengthening provided an effective tool for increasing the load at the cracking stage and also the load capacity and reducing flexural crack widths.

The Possibility of Using the kiwi Peels as an Adsorbent for Removing Nitrate from Water

Layla Abdulkareem Mokif; Noor Alaa Abdulhusain; Shaymaa Obayes Hussein AL-Mamoori

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 192-197
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In this study, the possibility of using kiwi peels as natural adsorbents for reducing nitrate concentration in water was considered. Various periods of time (30, 60, 90,120,150,180) minutes were done to detect the best contact time with initial nitrate concentration Co=50ppm, amount of adsorbent =1.0 gm. The results revealed that the equilibrium state of adsorption is approached after a contact time of 180 min and removal efficiency (R%=37.78). The effect of amount of adsorbent on nitrate adsorption, was studied by adding various amounts of adsorbent, (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5,3 gm.) with initial nitrate concentration (50 mg/l) and contact time of (3 hours). The results revealed that there was a relationship between the increase in the adsorbent amount (gram) and the increase in removal efficiency and that is due to the increase in the surface area available for adsorption process. Three initial concentrations of nitrate solution were examined (50, 75 and 100 mg/l) with amount of adsorbent of (1.0 gm.) and contact time of (3 hours). It is noticed that the adsorption rate increases with increasing the initial concentration. Also it is found that the best removal efficiency of nitrate occurs at initial concentrations of 100 mg/l.

Optimum Bridge Site Selection using Network Analysis Tool (Al Muwaffaqiyah Bridge in Iraq as A case Study)

Abdulhaq Hadi Abed Ali

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 198-213
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The main objective of this research is to select the best site for the establishment of a new bridge on the Al Gharraf river within the limits of the Al Muwaffaqiyah region . Al Muwaffaqiyah region is located in Wasit province in Iraq. The study area is divided into multiple zones . Three alternatives are proposed to construct the bridge site. The best one is selected using network analyst tool of ArcGIS software depending on the largest number of routes passing between zones. The route link between both sides of Al Gharraf river in Al Muwaffaqiyah region is one of the important projects in the city. The project will provide a new crossing point on Al Gharraf river . The proposed route will contribute to reduce traffic congestion depending on the foundations of planning and traffic so that gives the desired result of this project in terms of the location and importance of economic feasibility.

Effect of Quenching Media on Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon Steel 1030

Khansaa Dawood Salman; Bassam Ali Ahmed; Intesar Naif Frhan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 214-222
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This investigation aims to study the effect of quenching media (water, oil, Poly Vinyl Chloride PVC) on mechanical properties of 1030 steel. The applications of this steel include machinery parts where strength and hardness are requisites. The steel is heated to about 950 and soaked for 1hr in electrical furnace and then quenched in different quenching medium such as water, oil and poly vinyl chloride. After heat treatment by quenching, the specimens are tempered at 250 for 1hr and then cooling in air. The mechanical properties of the specimens are determined by using universal tensile testing machine for tensile test, Vickers hardness apparatus for hardness testing, measuring the grain size of the phases and examine the microstructure of the specimens before and after heat-treatment.
The results of this work showed that improving the mechanical properties of medium carbon 1030 steel, which is quenching by water gives the preferred results as the following: Quenching by water leads to increase σy, σu.t.s, K and hardness, but at the same time quenching by water leads to decrease E and n. Also the quenching by water and followed by tempering leads to improve the microstructure and decreasing (refining) of the grain size of ferrite and pearlite phases of the steel used in this work.

Investigation on Mechanical Properties of 302 L Stainless Steel Sheets under constant amplitude loading

M.Abdulrazzaq; Mahmoud.A.Hassan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 223-230
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In this study, the mechanical properties i.e., fatigue strength and fatigue crack growth (FCG) behaviour of 302 L stainless steel (S.S.) sheets with different thicknesses (0.05 mm, 0.1 mm and 1.5 mm) were investigated. The experimental investigation as well as fatigue life predication by using Walker model were performed. The FCG specimens were prepared according to the ASTM E647-08 standard. The results showed that S.S. sheet with 0.05 mm thickness exhibited higher tensile strength but limited ductility with no clear evidence of yielding as compared to 0.1 mm and 1.5 mm thickness.

Experimental Study of Annulus Flow for Can Combustor with Vibration Influence

Rami.Y.Dahham; Dhirgham Alkhafagiy

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 231-241
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This paper concentrate on studying the behavior of velocity profile under the influence of different frequency (34, 48, 65 and 80 Hz) in each of the upper and lower annulus of Can Combustor.An experimental rig was designed to simulate the annulus flow inside a Can Combustor.The Can Combustor tested in this study is real part collected from Al-Khairat/Iraq gas turbine power station.The velocity profiles are investigated at three positions in the annular for upper and lower region.The axial velocity and turbulence intensity are calculating with different frequency for upper and lower annulus.The results were shown that the increase of frequency lead to increase the velocity profile and large recirculation zone will build in some points.Reynolds number increasing with raise of axial velocity. Also the increasing in vibration level cause non-uniform velocity profile which affect on distribution of cooling effectiveness.

Comparative Study between Curved and Straight Pipe Heat Exchanger Using Solid Works

Mohamed F. Al-Dawody; Dhafer A. Hamzah

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 242-252
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This work focuses on an increase in the effectiveness for straight double pipe heat exchanger through curving the pipe through 180o. The geometry, mesh and boundary conditions are built up using solid works program. The proposed model of the curved pipe heat exchanger is subjected to different boundary conditions, according to inlet tube mass flow rate and inlet shell temperature. The simulated results confirmed that the effectiveness of the curved pipe heat exchanger is higher than straight pipe heat exchanger because the curvature of the pipe gives a longer time to exchange heat between hot and cold fluids. For fixed inlet tube mass flow rate and inlet shell temperature, the increase in the effectiveness of curved pipe is 14.86% compared to straight pipe at 357 K. The maximum effectiveness reached 13.75% at 363 K for curved heat exchanger with 0.22 kg/s inlet tube mass flow rate and fixed inlet shell temperature while it was 12.15% at 363 K for the straight pipe heat exchanger.

Properties Improvement of Cast Stone Produced Using Recycled Glass Waste and Lightweight Aggregates

Elham Abd AL-Majeed; Samir Hamid; Laith Kazum

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 253-264
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Cast stone (CS) is a form of pre-cast concrete widely, used in architectural applications for decorating and building face in place of natural stone due its superior features. The present study was an attempt in using of local lightweight aggregate materials (LWAM) as an alternative to percentage of coarse aggregate, and glass wastes as alternatives to percentages of fine aggregate in cast stone normal mixtures with white cement and plasticizer admixture. The CS products were cured after 24 hrs using of two different processes: water curing (at 23 C° for 3 days) and steam curing (at 60 C° for 14 hrs). Then the products were characterized by tests of compressive strength, design, absorption, flexure strength and liner drying shrinkage. The addition of alternative materials was done by trial mixes (M0-M3) through 3 groups (A, B, and C) according to standards. Group A: design of reference mixtures of CS with compressive strength of 46.3 MPa and the absorption of 6.19%, Group B: design of mixtures containing 50% LWA were 16% lighter than those of Group A with compressive strength of 43.6 MPa and 11% improvement in the absorption, Group C: design of mixtures containing (50 and 75%) glass waste with compressive strength of (47.5-44.3 MPa) and the absorption of (5.3-4.7%), respectively. The modified steam curing process (curing after 24 hrs casting) done in this study could prove its effectiveness in the achievement of the required compressive strength in comparison with the normal process (direct curing after casting) due to the effect of such new process in providing the more uniform distribution of the cement gel with good physical properties. Results from the flexural strength test could prove the achievement of the required levels (6.9 – 6.3 at 50 – 75% glass waste addition) recorded in the standard.

A Study of the Effect of Recycled Mix Glass on the Mechanical Properties of Green Concrete

Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi; Kadhum Muttar Shabeeb; Aynoor Ibrahim Ali Jan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 265-272
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In this paper we utilized mixing of different types of recycled glass such as (neon glass, brown glass, and green glass) that has high percentage of silicon dioxide (SiO2) with different concentrations. Utilization these landfall materials can be considered as keeping on resources. Different waste glasses used as a partial replacement of cement with different concentrations 11%, 13%, and 15% of cement weight for each type, and study the effect of it on the mechanical properties of concrete. After mixing, casting, and curing in water at (20±2)°C for (7, 14, and 28) days, the mechanical properties showed that the compressive strength and flexural showed highest results at 13% from cement weight of neon glass, whereas splitting tensile strength showed the highest value at the same percentage, but from green glass.

Preparation and Characterization of Antimicrobial PVA/ZnO Nanocomposite for Biomaterial Applications

Ali Kareem; Mohammed Al Maamori; Sabah N. K. AL-Thomir

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 286-294
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Control of microbial infections is a highly important issue in hospitals. Antimicrobial polymers are new kinds of antiseptics, which can be used as alternatives to disinfectants in sometimes. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (90 nm) with polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) generated by melting route. ZnO NPs was modified by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to get on uniform distribution within the matrix and then reduce agglomeration. The purpose of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of PVA ̸ ZnO nanoparticles against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus epidermidis) and fungi (Candida albicans,). The effects of concentration and particle size on the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles was studied using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test and the antimicrobial activity of PVA/ZnO nanocomposite was studied using agar well diffusion method. Results showed that the antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles with PVA increased with decreasing particle size and increasing concentration of ZnO NPs. Results showed that all microbes were fully inhibited at 3.7 μg / ml concentration for ZnO NPs, but activity against bacteria was not observed at 1.8 μm / ml.

Studying the Physical Properties of Hma with Recycled Aggregate Subjected to Moisture

Ahlam K. Razzaq; Nibras Ali Hussain; Asaad Mohammed Baqer

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 295-301
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As being exposed to water that exists on asphalt road, HMA that is created by utilizing a certain resources may require to be made strong due to the capability of that water to stop the covering to be attached to the aggregate, consequently, asphalt road layers will not be held jointly, this will have a negative influence on the asphalt that will be damaged quickly. Such phenomenon is known as "the erosion", which requires to be dealt with by, for example, improving asphalt layers by means of specific resources that assist in existence of water.
Different ways in this work are employed to calculate the strength of various mixes via using used aggregate that is exposed to saturation times, similarly, the importance of exploiting the anti-stripping as chemical addition is determined.
Three kinds of HMA were exposed in the current study, 60% of the first kind were made of used aggregate taking from crushed pavement, and 60% of the second kind were taking from using aggregate that is part of concrete mix, while the third mixture has 10% of wax used as an addition by pavement weight. These mixtures were soaked in water bath of 25o C for various intervals of time that are (3, 7, 15, 28) days. Many investigations examinations had been as well executed, and then the outcomes were contrasted against standard pavement blend subjected to similar circumstances. Number of examinations were adopted in this study, these are (Marshall Stability and flow), mass thickness, roundabout elasticity, compressive quality, affectability to temperature, flexible modulus.
The study achieved a good success as it makes important outcomes, the enhanced pavement showed strength against moisture damage while taking advantage of used aggregate of preceding blends, on other hand, the wax has affective role in raising these strengths in addition to develop the characteristics of HMA.

Simulation and Study of Multilevel Inverter System Fed by Photovoltaic Source

Ali Abdulrazzak Jasim

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 302-310
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This paper proposes a simulation of Photovoltaic energy used to supply an induction motor with a comparison of two types of inverters. In general, the greater number of motors which"are used in commercial and industrial applications are"induction motors. To use PV source to run the induction motor, an interface circuits are used which are a dc-dc"converter and an inverter, the PV cell has nonlinear behavior,"a dc-dc converter is used along with Maximum Power Point Tracker controller to improve the efficiency by boosting the output voltage of the PV module and to match the load demand."The dc output voltage of PV module then"converted to AC, two types of inverter are presented, A conventional Voltage Source Inverter system and multilevel inverter system which employ selective harmonic elimination method fed three phase induction motor, these two types of inverters are simulated using Matlab/Simulink and their results are presented. The FFT spectrum is presented of the output currents to analyze the harmonics reduction, which shows that the"multilevel inverter is better than VSI system"according to harmonics reduction and increment in output voltage and power.

Controlling Angular Distortion in Manual Metal Arc Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steels Using Back-step Technique

Abdul Sameea Jasim Abdul Zehra Jilabi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 311-319
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Nowadays, austenitic stainless steels (A.S.S.) have many industrial applications in the fields of chemical and petrochemical processing, marine, medicine, water treatment, petroleum refining, food and drinks processing, nuclear power generation etc. The secret behind this wide range of applications is the fact that A.S.S. have great corrosion resistance, high strength and scale resistance at elevated temperatures, good ductility at low temperatures approached to absolute zero in addition to notable weldability. On the other hand, manual metal arc (MMA) is probably the most common process used for the welding of A.S.S. Unfortunately, MMA welding of A.S.S. could be associated with considerable distortion. Uncontrolled or excessive distortion usually increases the cost of the production process due to the high expense of rectification or replacing the weldment by a non-distorted one.
MMA welding of A.S.S. was carried out using the back-step technique with various bead lengths, and without using this technique for comparison.
Results have showed that the angular distortion was a function of the bead length in the back-step welding of A.S.S. The angular distortion decreased by (14.32%) when the back-step technique was used with a (60 mm) length for each bead, and by (41.08%) when the bead length was (40 mm). On the other hand, it increased by (25%) when the back-step technique was done with a (30 mm) length for each bead.

ANN Technique to Predict Performances of Diesel Engine Runs by Butanol-Diesel Blends

Duraid F. Maki

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 320-327
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Performance of a diesel engine running under butanol-diesel blends one of important cases to evaluate the variance in the engine performance due to the fuel type change. Many efforts exerted in this field. Artificial neural network (ANN) model one of modern technique is used to predict the engine performance. ANN using a multi layer feed forward back propagation learning algorithm is developed to evaluate diesel engine performance. The brake efficiency, fuel consumption and exhaust temperature are predicted. The data required for training of ANN model are collected from experimental tests carried out on multi cylinder diesel engine. More than forty different architectures are tested for obtaining best fitting model. Maximum, minimum as well as average percentage errors are calculated for each architecture and R &  test is carried out to decide upon the best architecture for this model. The training process is set to stop when all errors are below 0.01 for training and below 3% for the validation. The results obtained from trained model are compared with experimental data of engine performance. The numerical investigation demonstrated that the ANN model is the best approach and assessment program for diesel engine performance with only 0.7% absolute average errors. The precise results of the model indicated an excellent and prompting training of ANN model.

Geospatial Hydrological Analysis in GIS Environment for Selecting Potential Water Harvest Sites: The case of Badrah –Wasit

Khalid Ahmed Ali

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 328-337
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In this study, GIS technique and remote sensing data have been integrated to create a suitability map for the probable sites of water harvesting in Badrah-Wasit, Eastern Iraq. Hydrological analysis used to find the potential water-harvesting sites, as well as to improve the water resource management. In this research, five criteria have been used, which is a stream order, slope, distance to roads, rainfall and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. These thematic layers were evaluated with the multi-criteria analysis method, then combine and process together using weighted overlay method, then assigned suitable weights and integrated into a GIS to generate a suitability map. As a result, the region has been classified into three zones: high suitability zone (2%), moderate suitability zone (27%), and low suitability zone (35%) depending on the specific criteria used for this purpose and have high potential in terms of their suitability for water harvesting.

Mechanical Properties of High Strength Mortars Made with Fine Waste Concrete Aggregates and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

Ali Hassoon Nahhab

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 338-355
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The mechanical properties of high strength mortars produced with fine waste concrete aggregate (FWCA) and GGBFS were investigated. The natural sand was replaced by FWCA with different levels, namely 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was substituted by GGBFS with 0, 30, and 60% by weight. To satisfy the requirements of high strength, all the mortar mixes were made with a 0.25 w/b ratio. The hardened mortars were tested for compressive strength, splitting tension, and fracture parameters at different ages. The experimental findings showed that the mixtures with FWCA showed lower strength, fracture energy and toughness compared to the corresponding reference mixes at a given age and GGBFS content. The 30% replacement of OPC by GGBFS improved the strengths of all mixes at 28 and 90 days. Moreover, the use of 30% GGBFS counterbalanced the strength decrement due to the use of the FWCA such that the mixtures with FWCA and GGBFS showed strengths comparable to or even exceeded the strengths of the mixtures made with natural sand only.