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Print ISSN: 1992-0652

Online ISSN: 2312-8135

American Offensive Funny Riddles: A Critical Metaphor Analysis

Ahmed Sahib Jabir Mubarak

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 107-121

The paradox in the offensive humor lies in the assumption that what evokes laughter can be harmful for someone. Linguistically, the offense can be expressed directly and indirectly, additionally, humor, including riddles is one of the most effective ways to show offense or aggression toward someone. Humor, on the other hand, is mostly expressed indirectly. Metaphoric forms are said to be one of the most appealing strategies of humor language. The present study aims at applying a critical metaphor analysis of some randomly selected American offensive humorous riddles related to various aspects of offense like race and nation. In this approach to critical discourse analysis, the cognitive aspect is added for the sake of analyzing figurative forms like metaphor which is considered as an important part of ideology. Thus, critical metaphor analysis covers both social and cognitive aspects. It is concluded that offensive jokes (namely funny riddles) can be used as a tool to measure the aggressiveness towards certain social aspects like race; on the other hand, metaphors afford indications of facets of power, inequality and people ideologies in American society.

Minor Characters in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and A Midsummer Night's Dream

Zahraa Adnan Baqer

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 131-152

This paper aims at discussing the role of the minor characters in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and A Midsummer Night's Dream. The study assumes that without the first group of minor characters, associated with Olivia, the play Twelfth Night would lose much of its humor, and without the second group, associated with Sebastian, the play would fall apart. On the other hand, in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream minor characters play important roles, without them, the action dose not ran smoothly, or does not ran at all.
The paper falls into three sections. Section one deals with the role of each minor character in Twelfth Night.
Section two focuses on the minor characters in A Midsummer Night's Dream.
Section three is a conclusion which sums up the findings of the study.

The Use of Verbal Affixes by Iraqi EFL University Learners : Errors Analysis

Sabeeha Hamza Dehham; Amjad Jabbar Majeed

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 131-152

Affixation is the formation of a new word from an existing word ,root ,or stem ,by the addition of a prefix or suffix or by other means (Jackson,1985:34).The present study is an attempt to identify the errors made by Iraqi EFL learners in the Department of English / College of Basic Education, University of Babylon in using verbal affixes. This study aims at :(1)Presenting a brief and relevant background of verbal affixes, (2) Identifying and classifying the errors made by the fourth year students in the English Department, College of Basic Education/ University of Babylon during the academic year (2016-2017), and (3) Locating the areas of difficulty that Iraqi EFL learners encountered in learning verbal affixes.

Controlling the Balance of Exploration and Exploitation in ACO Algorithm

Ayad Mohammed Jabbar

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 10-17

Ant colony optimization is a meta-heuristic algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of real ant colony. The algorithm is a population-based solution employed in different optimization problems such as classification, image processing, clustering, and so on. This paper sheds the light on the side of improving the results of traveling salesman problem produced by the algorithm. The key success that produces the valuable results is due to the two important components of exploration and exploitation. Balancing both components is the foundation of controlling search within the ACO. This paper proposes to modify the main probabilistic method to overcome the drawbacks of the exploration problem and produces global optimal results in high dimensional space. Experiments on six variant of ant colony optimization indicate that the proposed work produces high-quality results in terms of shortest route.

Arabic (Indian) Handwritten Digits Recognition Using Multi feature and KNN Classifier

Alia Karim Abdul Hassan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 10-17

This paper presents an Arabic (Indian) handwritten digit recognition system based on combining multi feature extraction methods, such a upper_lower profile, Vertical _ Horizontal projection and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) with Standard Deviation σi called (DCT_SD) methods. These features are extracted from the image after dividing it by several blocks. KNN classifier used for classification purpose. This work is tested with the ADBase standard database (Arabic numerals), which consist of 70,000 digits were 700 different writers write it. In proposing system used 60000 digits, images for training phase and 10000 digits, images in testing phase. This work achieved 97.32% recognition Accuracy.

Development a Teaching Methods using a Cloud Computing Technology in Iraqi Schools

Thair A. Kadhim

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 18-26

The current state of education is mostly electronic. Factors such as servers, storage space, and software are more prominent than ever before. Cloud Computing is defined as an Internet-based computing space that allows its users to share resources, software and information. In the context of Iraq, increased educational spending has not translated into improved learning environments. This work intends to increase the efficiency of education in Iraq through reviewing the characteristics associated with cloud computing providers, such as Microsoft, Google and Amazon, in the context of enhancing the advantages to students, teachers, and other stakeholders. The work will also try to determine approaches that offered rich and affordable services and tools through posing a suitable Cloud Computing Model for Iraqi Schools (CCIS). This particular model is made up of three major parts; preparation, implementation and monitoring, and evaluating and reviewing. The CCIS model combines public and private clouds in the provision of multiple services to the students and enables the formation of links outside of schools. Problems associated with security and data privacy are quite low and under control in this model, as they are defended beyond firewalls alongside remote services, scalability, low costs, efficiency, and functional plug and play options. This study will also decrease the challenges faced by the model internally and externally via constant appraisals and review.

On p-duo Semimodules

Asaad M. A. Alhossaini; Zainab A. H. Aljebory

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 36-44

The concept of p-duo semimodule is introduced as a generalization of duo semimodule, where a semimodule M is said to be a p-duo if every pure subsemimodule of M is fully invariant. Many results about this concept are given.

On generalized Szasz-Bernstein –Type Operators

Amal K.Hassan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 0-0

Resently Dr.R.P. Pathak and Shiv Kumar Sahoo in 2012 intrudes a new modified Szasz-Bernstein –type operators, in the present paper, we introduce generalize Szasz- Bernstein- type operators , we proved that the operators are converge to the function being approximation. In addition, we establish a Voronovaskaja- type asymptotic formula for this operators .

A Study Regarding the Generalization Capacity of Image Classification by Using Neuroal Networks In Matlab

Al Rubaie Evan Madhi Hamzh

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 45-56

The paper performs an algorithmic and experimental study regarding the generalization capacity of the scheme based on neuronal networks for the recognition of new images of the face. This enables both a rendering of graphic representations and the classification of image classes in Matlab. The purpose is to describe the recognition algorithm, to project and implement an application which proposes both the graphic representation of the images used by the neuronal training algorithm but also the implementation of the perceptron neuronal algorithm and the determination of the generalization capacity of the separating hyper plane of the considered image classes.

Generalization of Tichonov and Hausdorff Separation Axiomes in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Special Topological Spaces

Fatimah M. Mohammed; Younis J. Yaseen

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 4, Pages 57-62

Our goal in this paper is to give definitions of generalized of Tichonov and Hausdorff separation axioms in intuitionistic fuzzy special topological spaces, and study relationships between these spaces with the intuitionistic special topological spaces (X, τ0,1) and (X, τ 0,2) on one hand and intuitionistic fuzzy special topological spaces (X, τ1) and (X, τ2) on the other hand.

Evaluation of Traffic Accidents Rates in Al-Diwaniya City

Jalal Taqi Shaker Al-Obaedi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 571-578

Although the enhancing of traffic safety is the main concern of the local highways agencies, traffic accidents have been increased rapidly in recent decades mainly due to sharp increase in vehicles using road networks. In order to limit such increase, the causes of accidents should be analyzed properly so as to consider proper solutions. This paper uses real data taken from the local traffic agency in Al-Diwaniya city for the period from 2004 to 2013 to indentify the frequency and causes of traffic accidents.Questionnaire technique has also used in this study to show the percentage of unrecorded accidents. The results showed that the average deaths in the city caused by traffic accidents was found to be 33 deaths per 100000 population which is much higher than the world’s average death rates of 18 deaths per 100000 population. It is found that more than 50% of traffic accidents are related to drivers’ errors while the faults which may happen for vehicles are representing about 24%. About 46% of the recorded accidents are found to be when vehicles are hitting pedestrians while about 32% of accidents are related to vehicle collisions. This suggests that some attention should be given to enhance the pedestrians’ safety. The questionnaire results showed that about 21% of accidents are not recorded within the local traffic agency and 39% of vehicles are involving traffic accidents. Some recommendations are suggested in order to reduce traffic accidents such as the use of median barriers to regulate pedestrians crossing, and the use of intersections channelizing, tunnels and bridges so as to reduce traffic collisions.

Blending in Arabic and English

am Majeed Mohammed

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 1910-1922

This paper describes the word-formation process of blending in Arabic and English in order to point out the similarities and differences involved in the usage of such a process. It concludes that this process functions in similar ways in the two languages, though it has a wider application in English than Arabic. Another important conclusion is that in Arabic a blend may involve the contraction of three, four, or five words or even a whole sentence; whereas it is largely limited to the fusion of two successive words in English.

The Antibacterial Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles

Saba A. Mahdy; Wasnaa H. Mohammed; Hamsa Emad; Huda Abdul Kareem; Rana Shamel; Suzan Mahdi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 25, Issue 3, Pages 955-961

The potent antimicrobial efficacy of nanoparticles compounds represents new solution to microbial challenges in many infectious diseases. In the present study TiO2 nanoparticles which prepared by sol-gel method with 33nm size posses marked antibacterial effect on gram positive Staphylococcus aureus strain and gram negative Escherichia coli strain. The minimum inhibition concentration of TiO2 nanoprticles was found to be 30 μg/ml for S. aureus and40μg/ml for E. coli, which was determined by broth dilution method with and without TiO2 nanoparticles. The results were confirmed by agar diffusion assay.

Development of Pavement Condition Index Model Using PAVER 6.5.7 for Flexible Pavement Urban Roads in Kerbala City

Hussein Ali Ewadh; Raid Rahman Almuhanna; Saja Jasim Alasadi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 1572-1579

The pavement condition index (PCI) is an important factor indicating pavement condition of roads. The pavement is one of the basic parts of the road infrastructure. Accordingly the aim of this paper is to develop a pavement condition index model using PAVER 6.5.7 for a flexible pavement urban roads in the Kerbala city center. The development model is depending on the PCI value of 109 sample sections having 57.8 km length, Data collected for pavement distress (type, dimension, and severity) were used to find PCI. The filtering and outlier analysis was done by using a polynomial (fourth-degree) constrained least squared for statistical process. These processes were done by (PAVER 6.5.7) software.
The result of the prediction model of PCI shows that it is valid to be used in the prediction of the condition of pavement for the same family type.

Traditional Higher Education vs. Distance Education: A Critique on Models of Educational Change Theories

Sanaa Salman Shindi

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 803-808

The higher education institution is one of the most innovative and important tools in respect of the development of any society. Yet, its role in the developing countries is still limited to many traditional styles like theoretical lectures which depend on memorization and collecting information without paying attention to the collective action and the application of knowledge specially in Iraqi Universities. This study deals with the formerly mentioned problematic issues related to academic institutions in the developing countries by using the social theory. However, paying more attention Iraqi universities should be working hard to support the transitional issues of moving from traditional education to distance education

Behavior of Steel- Lightweight Concrete Composite Beams with Partial Shear Interaction

Fareed Hameed Majeed

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 34-20

This experimental work along with an analytical analysis is investigated. The behavior of simply supported steel beams with lightweight and normal concrete slab that have the same compressive strength and slump was studied. Eight specimens tested under mid-point load and analysis by plastic analysis theory. Four of composite beams have a steel I-section beam with normal concrete slab and the other four with lightweight concrete slab. Different degrees of shear interaction were considered (100% to 40%). It was observed that there are no essential differences between the modes of failure that appeared in the tested composite beams with normal and lightweight concrete. Also, it was noted that there is a decrease in the initial stiffness and also in the ultimate strength of the composite beams when the concrete of the flanges for the tested specimens was replaced from normal to lightweight concrete for different degrees of shear connections. The analytical results for all tested beam specimens, except that with normal concrete and 100% degree of shear interaction, gave overestimate results compared with those of experimental results.

Balancing Axial Thrust in the Single – Suction one stage Centrifugal Pump by Hydraulic Balance Holes.

Abdulkareem Abdulwahab Ibrahim

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 1017-1022

One of the important performance parameter for any centrifugal pump is its bearing life. Bearing life is of more importance , it depends upon two hydraulic forces acting on the impeller, i.e. radial thrust and axial thrust . Axial thrust is dependent on the many aspects , shroud and casing clearances, peripheral shroud speeds, head developed by the pump, impeller geometry. The use of drilled holes through the impeller shroud to the balancing chamber is inferior to the arrangement using a special channel to connect the balancing size of the holes, number of holes and diameter of circle holes . In this paper , derived the equation for determine the radius of circle hole

Synthesis of LC, RL and RC Circuit Using Embedded System Design Techniques

Mazin Rejab Khalil; Shaima Mohammed Ali

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 22, Issue 9, Pages 2332-2323

The paper is concerned with developing a soft-core processor system to be configured on Spartan 3E FPGA's slice using embedded design techniques. The developed processor system is accommodated to synthesize two- elements (LC, RL and RC) circuits based on the Partial Fraction expansion method. This work provides a suitable algorithm to realize analogue filters according their s-domain transfer function.
Keywords: Soft-core processor, FPGA, Embedded Development Kit (EDK), Partial Fraction

Antibacterial Activity of Titanium Dioxide (Tio2) Doped with H2O2 against staphylococcus aureus Human pathogen in aqueos solution.

Hawraa Whab Azize

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 617-625

The effects of parameters such as amount of TiO2, presence of H2O2, irradiation time, dark and light condition were studied and investigated their acted against S.aureus human pathogen in aqueous solution. The results show that the number of S.aureus was greatly reduced after treatment with a visible light and Tio2 doping H2o2 better than after treatment with visible light only and visible light with Tio2 only. In the treatment with Tio2 and light the number of bacteria was decreased with survival ratio at 40% . The best result has been obtained at 0.33mg/ml Tio2 concentration which is equal to survival ratio 30%. Two dark/H2O2 treatments have been done in presence and absence of Tio2, in adding 10ppm H2o2 the bacterial number decreases (survival ratio 45%) and in adding 0.33mg/ml of Tio2 with 10 ppm H2O2 in dark the survival ratio 40%. Two light/H2O2 treatments have been done in presence and absence of Tio2. Survival ratio in presence of light /H2O2 was 23%, the survival ratio of S. aureus in presence of light/H2O2/Tio2 was 11%. This study suggests that H2o2 doped Tio2 can be used as disinfectant in water phase.

Corrosion Behavior Of Carbon Steel Under Flowing Condition

Shaker Saleh Bahar; Watheq Naser Hussein; Hameed H.Alwan

Journal of University of Babylon, Volume 25, Issue 5, Pages 1619-1625

The behavior of carbon steel in 0.1 N NaCl solution under flowing conditions and at 30◦C was analyzed by using two methods, viz, weight method and polarization one and comparing them. It was found that the corrosion rate is affected by alternating the velocity of the solution, generally, higher mass transfer rates were obtained in weight loss than in the polarization method. Empirical equations were obtained for the two methods that relate the corrosion current versus the velocity of solution.

Journal Information

Publisher: Babylon University

Email:  info@journalofbabylon.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Adel Hadi Al- Baghdadi

About Journal

Journal of University of Babylon (JUB) is an official journal of University of Babylon in Iraq, established in 1995. JUB is publishing peer-reviewed, high-quality research papers and reviews in all branches of Engineering Sciences, Pure Sciences, and Humanity Sciences. JUB publishes...
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